samedi 31 octobre 2015

How to Make Apple Crumble

Most cultures have some form of baked apple dessert. Apple crisps, betties, and slumps or grunts are all closely related to the apple crumble. While many variations exist, at its simplest, the apple crumble consists of sliced apples covered with a buttery crispy topping. A baked apple crumble is gooey, bubbly, juicy, and smells incredible. Start with a simple apple crumble, then play with the variations. You'll quickly see why this apple dessert is well-loved around the world.

Makes one 9 inch pan

Ingredients

  • 5-6 quality baking apples
  • 2/3 cup flour
  • 2 tablespoons granulated sugar
  • 1/2 cup packed brown sugar
  • 1 teaspoon kosher salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
  • 6 tablespoons unsalted butter

Steps

Simple Apple Crumble

  1. Heat the oven and prepare your pan. Turn the oven on to 350ºF/177ºC. Butter an 8 or 9-inch baking dish or pie pan.
    Make Apple Crumble Step 1 Version 3.jpg
  2. Prepare the apples. Peel and core the apples. Then, cut them into 1/4 inch slices or dice them into small chunks. Place them into your prepared pan.
    Make Apple Crumble Step 2 Version 3.jpg
    • You may need more apples, depending on the size of your baking apples. Make sure the apples fill about three-quarters of your pan.
  3. Make the crumble topping. Whisk the flour, sugars, salt, and cinnamon in a medium bowl.
    Make Apple Crumble Step 3 Version 3.jpg
    • You can also sift the ingredients together into a bowl, but whisking is faster.
  4. Add butter to the dry crumble ingredients. Use a pastry cutter, fork, or your hands to cut the butter into the dry mixture. Cutting in simply means combining the butter with the flour till it reaches a crumbly sandy texture.
    Make Apple Crumble Step 4 Version 3.jpg
    • If you use your hands, be sure not to overwork the butter or it will become soft and hard to work with. Try to keep your hands cold and work quickly.
  5. Cover the apples with the crumble topping. Scatter all of the topping evenly over the apples in your pan. Press down lightly to gently pack it over the mounded apples.
    Make Apple Crumble Step 5 Version 3.jpg
  6. Cook the apple crumble. Bake it for 45 minutes to 1 hour, or until the top is golden, the juices are bubbly, and the apples are cooked through.
    Make Apple Crumble Step 6 Version 3.jpg
    • You may want to set a baking sheet below the apple crumble in the oven. This way the sheet will catch any drips from the bubbly apple crumble.
  7. Remove and serve. Let the apple crumble sit a few minutes before dishing up. Serve apple crumble with cream, sauce, or ice cream.
    Make Apple Crumble Step 7 Version 3.jpg
    • Cover and refrigerate any leftovers. Apple crumble will keep a few days, but may lose its crisp texture.

Trying a Variation on Apple Crumble

  1. Switch up your fruit. You can make crumbles all year using seasonally fresh produce. Try blackberries and strawberries during the summer or pears and rhubarb during the spring. If you use fruit that is considerably tarter, you may need to adjust the sugar. For example, rhubarb will require extra sugar.
    Make Apple Crumble Step 8 Version 3.jpg
    • Frozen fruit can also be used in crumbles. Don't thaw before covering it with crumble topping. Simply top and bake.
  2. Use oats in the topping. To add a heftier chewy texture to your crumble topping, consider adding oats. Replace half of the flour with oats. This will give your crumble a bit of a granola taste.
    Make Apple Crumble Step 9 Version 3.jpg
    • Remember to keep some flour in your topping, even when using oats. Flour acts as a binder and keeps the topping together. It will also help soak up juices from the fruit.
  3. Add nuts. Nuts can add flavor, nutrition, and crunch to a crumble. Use your favorite nut, or try pecans, walnuts, or hazelnuts. They're best if you use roasted nuts and chop them before adding them to the topping.
    Make Apple Crumble Step 10 Version 3.jpg
    • Make sure nuts are well mixed into the crumble topping. If simply scattered over the topping, they're likely to burn.
  4. Serve with whipped cream, ice cream, or crème anglaise. While apple crumble is great on its own, try adding a dollop of whipped cream or a scoop of ice cream over it. Or pour crème anglaise, a rich creamy custard, over the warm crumble.
    Make Apple Crumble Step 11.jpg
    • You don't have to stick to vanilla ice cream. Apple crumbles work well with caramel or dulce de leche ice cream.

Tips

  • If you prefer to make your crumble a bit fancier, add some little slices of apple with a bit of sugar on top for a beautiful presentation.
  • Be careful and keep an eye on the crumble to make sure that it doesn't burn.
  • Use oven mitts and caution when handling hot containers.
  • When you are making any pastry or biscuits always leave the dough to rest for up to 30 minutes and then it shall be easier to use.
  • Add vinegar to make the taste very delightful and a bit sour.
  • Instead of adding vinegar, you could add a teaspoon of lemon juice.
  • Porridge oats add a thicker texture and give a better crunch to it.

Things You'll Need

  • apple corer
  • apple peeler
  • knife
  • baking pan or pie pan
  • pastry cutter or fork
  • measuring spoons and cups

Related wikiHows

Sources and Citations

http://ift.tt/1k0Elq0 http://ift.tt/1RkBfHR http://ift.tt/1RkBeUh








source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/P3gAyi

How to Heal Cracked Skin

Cracked skin happens usually when our skin becomes way too dry. As our skin dries, it loses flexibility and the pressure of everyday use causes it to crack. These cracks can be painful but they're also a giant beacon for infections. It's important to treat cracked skin before you end up with a much more serious health problem.

Steps

Treating the Skin

  1. Check for infections. You should start by checking for signs of infection. If the area is swollen, releasing pus or blood, or is very tender and painful, you should go immediately to your doctor or local health clinic. Skin cracks are very prone to infection and these infections require professional treatment.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 1 Version 2.jpg
  2. Soak your skin with a disinfectant. Start treatment of basic cracks by soaking your skin. Sanitize a bowl, bucket, or tub and then fill it with warm (not hot) water. You'll then want to pour in a little apple cider vinegar to help disinfect your skin. Use about 1 cup per gallon of water. Disinfecting will help cut down on chances for the cracks to become infected.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 2 Version 2.jpg
  3. Gently exfoliate. Using a clean washcloth, gently rub the affected area. This will remove dead skin cells and allows the products you'll place on your skin to absorb better. Be sure to be gentle and that the washcloth you use is clean.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Once you've healed the cracks, you can use more aggressive forms of exfoliating but this should not be done more than once a week. Your skin is sensitive and needs to be treated carefully.
  4. Apply a layer of moisturizer. Give your skin a final rinse and then apply a layer of moisturizer. You'll want to lock in the moisture that your skin received with the soak, or else you risk drying out your skin even more.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    • We recommend a lanolin product but you'll find other recommendations in the next section.
  5. Apply wet dressings overnight. If you have time, such as if you can treat your skin overnight or on a weekend, wet dressings may help heal the skin and can at least provide you with greater comfort.[1] Wet dressings consist of a moist layer of fabric covered by a dry layer. So, for example, let's say your feet are cracked. Wet a pair of socks and then wring them so they don't drip. Put those on and then cover with dry socks. Sleep like this overnight.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 5 Version 2.jpg
    • It is important not to do this if you suspect the cracks are infected, since this can make the infection worse.
  6. Apply bandages during the day. For treatment during the day, fill the cracks with liquid or gel "bandage" product, or at least with an antibiotic product like Neosporin. You can then cover the area with a protective cotton surgical pad and wrap with gauze. This should reduce pain and speed up the healing process.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 6 Version 2.jpg
  7. Keep the area clean and protected until the cracks heal. Now you just have to be patient while the cracks heal. Be sure to keep the effected area clean and covered, to prevent further irritation. If the cracks are on your feet, wear socks which are clean and change them at least once (if not twice) a day until the cracks heal. If the cracks are on your hands, wear gloves when you're outside and for activities like washing dishes.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 7 Version 2.jpg

Maintaining Moisture

  1. Make a long term moisturizing routine. Once you've started to heal the cracks in your skin, your best bet is to start a long term routine to prevent more cracks. Unfortunately, this is a skin problem that is better to focus on preventing then on fixing once it occurs. Whatever moisturizing routine you use, just make sure that it's something you can keep up long-term and use regularly, since this is the best way to prevent future issues.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 8 Version 2.jpg
  2. Find a lanolin cream. Lanolin, which is a wax-like substance made from wool-producing animals, is nature's best way of protecting skin. Used consistently, you should be able to apply it every other day or every third day and still see the same soft skin. When you first start using it, apply it liberally at night and give it time to soak into your skin.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 9.jpg
    • Bag Balm is the most common brand of lanolin product in the US and can be found at most drug stores.
  3. Look for the right ingredients in other moisturizers. If not using lanolin, you'll want to analyze what moisturizing products you do buy. You'll want products with the right kinds of ingredients, to guarantee that you get the right effect. Many moisturizers will include lots of natural, healthy sounding ingredients but they won't actually help your skin very much. You'll want to instead look for these in the ingredients list[2]:
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 10.jpg
    • Humectants, which draw moisture into your skin. Examples include glycerin and lactic acid.
    • Emollients, which protect your skin. Examples include lanolin, urea, and silicon oils.
  4. Apply a light layer directly after bathing or soaking. Every time you bath or expose your cracked skin to water, you're washing away natural oils which protect your skin. Apply at least a light level of moisturizer after every shower, as well as any time you soak your feet.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 11.jpg
  5. Apply a thick layer of moisturizer at night. If you can, apply a thick layer of moisturizer before going to bed at night. This will give your feet time to really soak all of that healing product in, while making sure that you're not bothered by squishy skin. Cover your skin thickly in moisturizer and then put on a layer to protect the moisturizer while it soaks in.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 12.jpg
    • If the cracks are on your feet, use socks. If the cracks are on your hands, use gloves.

Controlling the Problem

  1. Check for health problems. There are many health problems which can cause severely dry skin like this. You might want to evaluate your health and make sure none of these problems are effecting you. If you are suffering from a larger condition, it's important to treat it before the cracks reappear and become infected...or before other, more dangerous symptoms come up.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 13.jpg
    • Diabetes is one common example of an illness which can cause severely dry skin in the extremities. [3]
    • Talk to your doctor for help in figuring out if you have outside health factors.
  2. Avoid removing your natural oils. Your body will naturally produce oils which help protect your skin and prevent cracks. However, an incorrect bathing routine can strip your skin of these natural oils and put you at risk. Mostly you'll want to avoid harsh soaps and hot water, since both will send your body's oils running.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 14.jpg
    • If you soak your feet, don't use soaps in the water. Generally you want to avoid soap on sensitive skin, like your feet. Water and a washcloth should be more than enough to get them clean.
  3. Protect your skin from the elements. When the air gets really cold, it also dries out. The area you live in might also be naturally dry. This dry air, draws moisture out from your skin naturally. Protect your skin from drying out by evening out the moisture in the air or by protecting your skin. Place a humidifier in your home or office and wear socks and gloves when you go outside.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 15.jpg
    • You skin should also be protected from the sun, which can create damage and dryness over time.
  4. Change your shoes. If the cracks you experience are mainly on your feet, you might want to take a look at your shoes.[4] Shoes with open backs and poor padding can lead cracks to form by putting too much pressure on already sensitive skin. Use closed shoes and make sure they're very comfortable.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 16.jpg
    • Switch to jogging shoes or at least use insoles to protect your feet from pressure.
  5. Drink more water. Dehydration can definitely make your skin more prone to being dry and when you combine it with improper washing and a dry environment, it's a recipe for cracked skin. Drink plenty of water each day to keep your body properly hydrated.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 17.jpg
    • How much is the right amount depends on the individual person. Generally, if your pee is pale or clear, you're getting enough. If it's not, you need to drink more water.
  6. Get proper nutrients. Your skin needs lots of vitamins and nutrients in order to keep growing in healthy. You can make some improvements to the quality of your skin by making sure that nutrient deficiency is not the source of your problem. Get lots of vitamin A, vitamin E, and omega 3 fatty acids, to help your skin get what it needs to be healthy.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 18.jpg
    • Good sources of these nutrients include: kale, carrots, sardines, anchovies, salmon, almonds and olive oil.
  7. Evaluate your weight. Obesity and excess weight are commonly attached to conditions of severely dry skin. If you find yourself unable to beat this dry skin problem and no outside health factors are in play, you will want to consider trying to lose weight. Remember that this cracked skin poses a serious risk of infection: while the problem might seem small, it can actually be very dangerous and you shouldn't dismiss the problem.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 19.jpg
  8. Talk to your doctor. Again, if you are ever concerned because the cracks won't go away or because they're infected, please see your doctor or go to a clinic. This is a common problem and there are many solutions available. You doctor should be able to help you figure out if this is a problem you can beat with a routine, or if medication will be needed to help prevent infections.
    Heal Cracked Skin Step 20.jpg

Tips

  • Naturally dry skin or thick dry skin (callus) around the heel that is more likely to crack is often due to excessive feet activity.
  • Back-open sandals or shoes allow the fat under the heel to expand sideways and increases the possibility of cracks on the heels.
  • Disease and disorders such as athlete’s foot, psoriasis, eczema, thyroid disease, diabetes and some other skin conditions may cause cracked heels. Speak to your doctor for advice.
  • Prolonged standing at work or home on hard floors may cause cracks in the feet.
  • Being overweight may increase the pressure on the normal fat pad under the heel, causing it to expand sideways and if the skin lacks flexibility the pressure on the feet lead to cracked heels.
  • Continuous exposure to water- Water, especially running water, can rob the skin of its natural oils and this can leave the skin dry and rough. Standing for prolonged periods in a damp area such as a bathroom can cause dry and cracked heels.

Related wikiHows

Sources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1uaWQYr

How to Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope

Astronomy is a very popular hobby. Humans have been interested in the things they can see in the sky since before recorded history, and that interest shows no sign of abating. There are many brands and types of telescopes out there. The vast majority of affordable amateur telescopes that you can purchase come with what are known as "alt-azimuth" mounts. This means that the telescope's OTA (Optical Tube Assembly) can be pivoted up and down (altitude) and right or left (azimuth).

These are fine for visual observation and short exposure photography, but if you want to try your hand at astrophotography, you will need to mount your telescope on an equatorial (EQ) mount that allows you to align your telescope with the latitude at your location.

Upgrading your alt-az mount to equatorial can be expensive, though. Commercial EQ wedges will run you anywhere from $200 up. Equatorial mounts can also be expensive, particularly if they are computerized for "Go To" capability. Used ones can be obtained for less, but why buy one when you can build your own and learn something new in the process?

This article will walk you through the construction of a simple, fixed-elevation equatorial wedge. Most amateur astronomers observe the sky from the same place every night, so a fixed-angle wedge is all that is needed. This one, however, can easily be modified to allow adjustment if you so desire.

The images depict a wedge for a Celestron NexStar 6SE 6" Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, but with a little ingenuity and some elbow grease the concepts can be applied to any telescope mount.

Steps

  1. Identify the latitude for your chosen viewing location. For amateur purposes, you only need to narrow it down to an accuracy of one tenth of a degree, rounded up to the nearest tenth. For example, downtown Boston is located at 42.3 degrees north latitude. Write this down -- you will need it later on. There are several ways you can obtain the coordinates for the location.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 1.jpg
    • With any GPS that can display your position (on a Garmin device, for example, the "Where am I?" screen will show your current coordinates).
    • Any smartphone app such as GPS Status that can do the same using the internal GPS.
    • With Google Earth
    • With Google Maps.
  2. Measure the base of your telescope mount. You will need to measure the length and width of the mount. Assuming that you already made sure your plank of wood is at least four inches wider than the mount, add four inches to the length of the mount at the base.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 2.jpg
  3. From the edge of the plank, measure the distance to match the number of inches or mm calculated in step 2. Draw a line with the pencil across from edge to edge. From that line, measure twice the distance and draw a second line. Halfway between, draw a third line. The first measurement will give you the wood for the base mount, the second for the longer plank that will bolt to the top of the telescope tripod. In the end you should have three lines, all the same distance from each other.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 3.jpg
  4. Cut the plank. You will first cut one smaller piece for the telescope mount and a second piece, twice as long, for the tripod base. That piece will have the line you drew right across the middle.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 4.jpg
  5. Mark the centers. On the smaller piece, mark the center by drawing two lines diagonally from the corners. On the larger piece, do the same but from the edge to the line drawn halfway down its length.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 5.jpg
  6. Measure and mark the bolt holes. This part is tricky. You will need to measure the distance from the center of the telescope mount to the center of the bolt holes as well as the angles in order to mark and drill the holes. You'll need to do the same for the bolt holes on the top of the tripod, but keep in mind that the bolt hole layout may be different, so don't assume they are the same.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 6.jpg
  7. Drill the bolt holes. You may have to adjust a bit and make the holes oversize to get them to fit properly. That's OK, as long as you use washers the boards will not move on the tripod. On the smaller board, use a jigsaw or small saw to cut from the edge of the board to the bolt hole whose radius is perpendicular to the edge, as shown in this image. The cuts should create a slot whose sides align with the edges of the drilled hole. This will make it easier to mount the telescope base to the wedge.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 7.jpg
  8. Install the hinge. If you have not done so already, cut the piano hinge to the width of the board for the telescope mount. Carefully align the hinge on the line you drew halfway down the length, clamp it down and install one side of it using two wood screws on each end. You can then remove the clamp. Place the telescope mount board next to the hinge with the slot cut away from the hinge, hold it as close to the hinge as possible and screw it to the side edge of the board. The hinge should touch the base and the telescope mount board should hinge up, as shown in the image.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 8.jpg
  9. Bolt the wedge to the top of the telescope mount, making sure you use washers on each bolt.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 9.jpg
  10. Decide how you will support the telescope mount base. At this point you can do one of two things. You can cut triangular pieces of wood to insert underneath the telescope mount board and hold it at a fixed angle, or you can cut larger pieces to attach on the outside of the long base board to support the telescope mount, but also give you the ability to modify the angle if needed. The tricky part here is the geometry. The top surface of the telescope base mount must be raised to an angle equal to the latitude of your location (you did write that down in step 1, right?) That angle needs to be as accurate as possible, but for amateur purposes the tolerances need not be microscopic.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 10.jpg
  11. Build the supports. In my case, I used two pieces of wood, cut them roughly to the shape of a slice of pizza, with the radius about an inch longer than 1/2 the length of the telescope base mount board, and attached it to the outside of the wedge with screws. You can (and probably should) use a wood router to make dado cuts and apply glue. I used wood screws.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 11.jpg
  12. Raise the board to the desired angle. Remember to measure the angle of the top surface of the board. Triple-check the angle, secure the board and drill holes on each side slightly smaller than the wood screws and into the edge of the board. Insert screws.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 12.jpg
  13. At this point you should have a working wedge. All you need is a clear night, and an understanding of how to polar align the telescope. The shelf under the telescope mount board can be used to store eyepieces, or a larger battery to power the scope's electronics. Sand everything down to remove any splinters and sharp edges and finish to your preference.
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 13.jpg
  14. You now have a platform for astrophotography! Enjoy!
    Build an Equatorial Wedge for Your Telescope Step 14.jpg


Tips

  • The reason a wedge is needed for astrophotography is that if you do not align the telescope to true north, a photographic exposure of any significant length will show trails on all points of light except the one at the center of the image.

Warnings

  • If your telescope mount and OTA (optical tube assembly) are large, the wedge will make them even heavier. Be careful when moving the unit, and check the tripod's specifications to make sure it can handle the additional weight of the wedge.
  • Wear safety glasses at all times when performing the construction, cutting wood, painting, etc. 

Things You'll Need

  • One plank of strong solid oak, 3/4" thick, five feet long and at least four inches wider than the base of your scope mount (for the 6SE, 11.25" wide will do).
  • Six bolts with washers
    • Three 3/8" by 1.5"
    • Three 5/16" by 1.5"
    • These are the sizes required for the Celestron NexStar mount, check your mount to see if it's different.
  • A length of piano hinge as long as your plank of oak is wide (if it's longer, trim it with metal-cutting snips).
  • #10 screws, 1.5" long, countersunk heads (regular heads will do but countersinking is easy and looks better).
  • A protractor.
  • A ruler.
  • Hand drill with a variety of bits for wood.
  • Some kind of saw to cut the wood (I used a jig saw).
  • A screwdriver.
  • A #2 pencil for marking.
  • For finishing...
    • Various grades of sandpaper
    • Your choice of a paint or stain
    • A clean rag to take off the excess if staining
    • A paint brush
    • If you plan to use it outdoors a lot, you may want to purchase a good wood sealant like spar urethane in a spray can.


source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1bCQau1

vendredi 30 octobre 2015

How to Work at a Library

Library staff range from volunteer students shelving books, to professional librarians with multiple master's degrees overseeing a specialized collection. As an entry-level job seeker, your best option is to volunteer or to apply for library assistant jobs at small libraries. Competition for these positions is often high, so keep reading to find out more about them and how to increase your odds.

Steps

Understanding Entry-Level Library Work

  1. Ask about volunteer work at your local public library. The staff member at the reference desk can give you more information on volunteering, or direct you to someone who can. Public libraries often have volunteer opportunities for people without any library-related experience or education. Your volunteer work might include shelving books, repairing damaged books, helping patrons at the circulation desk, or assisting the children's librarian.
    Work at a Library Step 1.jpg
  2. Consider becoming a library page. Library pages are usually paid, but may be temporary or part-time employees. The work is similar to what a volunteer would do, typically shelving books. This may be your best bet at paid library employment if you are not a college student, and do not have a college degree.
    • The librarian at the reference desk should be able to tell you about this program as well.
  3. Inquire about other jobs at the library. It's important to note that not every library job role involves being a librarian or requires a library science degree. Almost all libraries need a janitor, and the larger ones need security guards as well.
  4. Look for opportunities at your college or university. If you are a college or university student, visit your school's library. It may hire students as library assistants. These positions can often be scheduled around the student's class schedule and may or may not be connected to the student's financial aid package.
  5. Compare library assistant job requirements. A library assistant position is an entry-level job opening that handles the day-to-day work in the library. Requirements vary greatly between libraries. Small libraries are more likely to have low requirements, and may even train high school students. More commonly, you'll need a high-school diploma, and sometimes college-level coursework in library science.
    • Some libraries use the term "library technician" interchangeably with "library assistant." At others, technicians are at a higher rank and have higher educational requirements.

Getting a Job

  1. Check the bulletin board or website. Most libraries have a bulletin board where they display notices of special events and, occasionally, open positions. Check this occasionally so you can apply for jobs you're qualified for, or to find out what requirements you can work toward. The library may also advertise job openings on its website, or on local government websites.
    • Most libraries are non-profit institutions supervised by a board. Compared to most employers, this gives them less leeway for discretionary hiring. You're unlikely to be hired based on personal connections, and meeting the stated requirements is usually mandatory.
  2. Visit the library before applying. When you see a job opening that fits your level of experience, visit the library in person. Evaluate the service you receive and the experience of visiting the library. Ask questions of the library staff. Look at the program schedules, the technology available, and other library resources. All these things give you material to talk about in your interview, both for showing that you've done your homework, and for offering suggestions of things you could contribute.
    • For example, if you visited a library program, come up with ideas to improve it. If a kids' gardening program is popular, suggest starting a seed library.
    • Gather as much information as possible about the library where you are applying for a job:
      • the domains the library covers
      • the classification system used
      • the database used
      • whether the library has digitized versions of books
  3. Send in your resume. Many public library jobs, especially in large cities, have a computer scan the resumes rather than a human being. These resumes must include certain key words from the job description, or the applicant will not be considered for an interview.
    • In your cover letter and during the interview, highlight the qualities that would make you a good librarian (organizational skills, attention to detail, social skills), as well as your interest in the library and the domains it covers.
  4. Research local politics. Find out everything you can on politics which might affect the library, before you interview there. Has its funding been in jeopardy, or have hours or services cut? Consider a role as an advocate or supporter of the library. Look into a "friends of the library" group which may be serving this function.
  5. Network. If possible, get acquainted not only with the librarians on staff, but with the board members who do the hiring. If, after applying, the library invites you to meet the board, the friends of the library, or another citizen's group, treat it as an extension of the interview. Be professional and engaged.

Training for a Librarian Career

  1. Look for jobs that require a college degree. Some librarian positions in public libraries require only an associate's or bachelor's degree. These types of positions are often for teen and children's librarians.
  2. Study for a Master's in Library Science. Almost all intermediate and advanced level library jobs require a Master's in Library Science (MLIS). These professional librarians have more advanced duties, such as overseeing the assistants or updating the library's collections.
    Work at a Library Step 2.jpg
  3. Specialize. Librarians fill many roles, including reference librarian, corporate librarian, cataloguer, library manager, collections manager (deciding which books are added and removed), children's librarian, teen librarian, school librarian (K-12), academic librarian, systems librarian (involves IT work), or running the circulation desk. Research the roles that sound interesting to you, and focus your education towards these positions.
    • Many library science programs also offer a specialization in archives. Archivists handle historic texts, preserving them physically and granting access to them for research.
  4. Train for an academic library. Many academic librarians also hold an additional master's degree in a specific subject. If you're passionate about an academic subject, such as art, law, music, business, or psychology, this path can combine it with your interest in libraries.
    Work at a Library Step 3.jpg
  5. Consider working in a special library. Special libraries are usually private, company libraries that hold collections centered on legal, business, medical, or government resources. Most librarian positions in special libraries require a minimum of a master's degree in library science. A librarian may also need to have degrees or experience in the special library's specific subject area. Example subjects include law, business, science, and government.
    Work at a Library Step 4.jpg

Tips

  • Public and academic libraries will often require staff to work flexible schedules to cover evening and weekend shifts.
  • Library workers must have strong customer service skills to assist patrons.
  • If you are a new librarian who has just earned the MLS and have little or no library experience, consider relocating to less urban areas or applying for positions at small libraries.
  • Find library jobs through public and university library websites and library associations like the American Library Association and the Special Libraries Association.

Related wikiHows




source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1jY0GEE

How to Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head

The key to dog training is repetition and clarity. If you train your dog daily and stick to a single command, he will have a much easier time learning. If your dog is having trouble with the basic training approach, a pair of sticky notes can help him understand what you want him to do. Keep reading to find out how.

Steps

Basic Head Shake Training

  1. Follow these instructions if you are new to dog training. This method demonstrates the fundamentals of dog training, and how to use them to teach this trick. If you already know how to train your dog but your dog is having trouble with this specific trick, check out the sticky notes method below.
    Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head Step 1 Version 2.jpg
  2. Get the dog's attention with a reward. Choose a specific reward that the dog enjoys, such as a ball, a plastic bone, or a smelly treat. Show the dog the reward at a time when the dog is attentive, but not overly excited. Command the dog to sit.
    Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    • If the dog is too energetic, it won't focus on the lesson. Tire it out a little before training, or choose a slightly less exciting reward.
    • If your dog doesn't respond to "Sit," teach your dog that command before you teach it this one.
  3. Wave the reward slowly back and forth. Start waving the reward very slowly on a horizontal line in length (about the length of a ruler). This shouldn't look like you're saying no or scolding the dog; it should look as if you're trying to hypnotize your dog. As soon as the dog follows the treat back and forth with its whole head (not just its eyes), reward and praise him. If the dog doesn't follow the movement, let him sniff the object, then try again.
    Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Clicker training makes it much easier for the dog to understand your behavior. The basic idea is to use a "clicker" (or any short, sharp noise) immediately when the dog displays the correct behavior. Do this in addition to giving praise and treats.
  4. Move your own head, if necessary. If your dog doesn't respond to the moving treat, try snapping your own head to one side. If the dog mimics you, say "good head shake!" and give it the reward. This may take several tries or even several training sessions.
    Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    • If the dog still doesn't understand what you want, you may have to wait for the dog to shake its head naturally. Immediately reward the dog for this behavior.
  5. Add the verbal command. Choose "Head shake!" or any other verbal command, but stick to one exact choice of words. Give this command at the same time you wave the treat or move your own head. As before, reward the dog and praise it as soon as it responds correctly.
    Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head Step 5 Version 2.jpg
  6. Train in short sessions. Keep the first session to ten or fewer repetitions, to avoid making the dog tired or bored. Repeat the training daily, but stop each session as soon as the dog starts to tire, looks distracted, or resists your commands (typically within a few minutes). As you continue the daily training sessions, your dog should respond more consistently. Give him time and patience. Some dogs learn much faster than others.
    Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head Step 6 Version 2.jpg
    • End sessions on a positive note whenever possible. Praise the dog for its efforts.
  7. Train the dog to respond to the command alone. As your dog learns the command, repeat it with just a hand motion and a verbal command, without holding a treat. When your dog successfully responds, reward it and praise it as usual. When the dog consistently responds to this, start giving it just the verbal command. Continue the training until it responds to the command alone.
    Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head Step 7 Version 2.jpg

Training with Sticky Notes

  1. Teach the dog to touch a sticky note with his nose. As with most tricks, clicker training and some treats is the easiest way to accomplish this. Bring the sticky note near the dog's face, give a verbal cue, then "click" and reward the dog immediately if he sniffs or investigates it. Train in short sessions once or twice a day.
    Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head Step 8.jpg
  2. Move the sticky note to different locations. Once your dog understands and can fluently touch his nose to the sticky note, start to stick the sticky note in different places. Repeat the training until the dog will respond to the command and touch it in any location.
    Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head Step 9.jpg
    • You can stick it to your trouser leg, the wall or a chair.
  3. Stick two sticky notes at your dog's head height. Next, stick one sticky note to the wall at your dog’s head height. Stick a second to the back of a chair opposite, so the two sticky notes face each other. Get your dog to sit in the gap between the chair and the wall. Command the dog to touch one of the sticky notes, then click and deliver your reward at the other sticky note. After enough repetitions, the dog will touch one and then the other. You now have a complete head shake.
    Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head Step 10.jpg
  4. Raise your standards gradually. As you continue this training, start insisting that the dog make complete contact with both sticky notes before you give the reward. Once your dog understand this, start requiring the dog to move from side to side repeatedly, touching each sticky note multiple times.
    Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head Step 11.jpg
  5. Phase out the sticky note. Once your dog has a good head shake going, have the dog sit further forward before you begin. The sticky notes will now be behind the dog, so the dog will not touch them when he turns side to side. Your dog may try to get up and turn around to actually touch the sticky notes, so you must be careful to click and reward right as they turn their head, not once they have turned around and actually touched the sticky notes. Gradually move your dog further and further away from the sticky notes, until it's learned to make the head shake motion with no props.
    Train Your Dog to Shake Its Head Step 12.jpg

Tips

  • Smelly treats are great for getting the dog's attention.
  • Take your time. Only work for a short time each day.
  • Lots of patience is required.
  • Always use positive reinforcement and never punish a dog for not getting it or making a mistake. Always make training fun.
  • If the dog is too excited or energetic to focus on the less, tire them out by playing with them.

Warnings

  • Not every training method works with every dog. Just like people, not all dogs learn the same way.

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