lundi 30 novembre 2015

How to Use These and Those

These and those are both pronouns, words that substitute for other nouns in a sentence. Knowing when to use each pronoun can be tricky, however. If you're confused about when to use these and those, read on to find out the difference between them.

Steps

Understanding Pronouns

  1. Understand the function of pronouns. These and those are both pronouns, words that refer to or substitute for other nouns in the sentence. They draw attention to something specific. Because a pronoun takes the place of another noun, using the correct one helps your reader understand what the referent of the pronoun is (i.e., what noun it took the place of).[1]
    • These and those are plural pronouns: they refer to or replace plural nouns.
  2. Understand pronoun agreement. "Agreement" means that the pronoun takes the same number as the noun it replaces. If the noun is singular, you would use this or that. If the noun is plural, you would use these or those.
    • American English considers collective nouns, or nouns that refer to a large group of things that cannot be counted individually (such as milk or data), as singular nouns. Use this or that rather that these or those for collective nouns. For example: "This milk has spilled all over the floor!"
    • British English differs from American English in using collective nouns. British English refers to some collective nouns such as crowd or data as plural, so it is appropriate to use these or those in British English. For example: "These data don't match the graphs you gave me."
  3. Understand the function of these. These is the plural form of this. You will use it to refer to or replace a plural noun.
    Use These and Those Step 3.jpg
    • Singular: This book (a single book) on the shelf next to me belongs to Rajeev.
    • Plural: These books (several books) on the shelf next to me belong to Rajeev. [Note that the verb belong has also been made to agree in number.]
    • Singular: Look at this bracelet (a single bracelet) on my wrist!
    • Plural: Look at these bracelets (many bracelets) on my wrist!
    • Singular: Who put this cupcake (a single cupcake) in the refrigerator?
    • Plural: Who put these cupcakes (some cupcakes) in the refrigerator?
  4. Understand the function of those. Those is the plural form of that. You will use it to refer to or replace a plural noun.
    Use These and Those Step 4.jpg
    • Singular: That mountain (a mountain) looks really small from here.
    • Plural: Those mountains (several mountains) look really small from here. [Note that the verb look has also been made to agree in number.]
    • Singular: Could you hand me that box (a box) on the other side of the room?
    • Plural: Could you hand me those boxes (a few boxes) on the other side of the room?
    • Singular: Why hasn't that scientist (a scientist) at NASA found extraterrestrial life?
    • Plural: Why haven't those scientists (many scientists) at NASA found extraterrestrial life? [Note that the verb have has also been made to agree in number.]

Using These Correctly

  1. Use these to replace nouns that are nearby in space and time. If the noun you are referring to is near to you, either physically or figuratively, you can replace it with these.
    Use These and Those Step 7.jpg
    • I'm holding three chocolate bars. Do you want all of these? (These replaces chocolate bars.)
    • Would you like to borrow some books? Here, take these. (These replaces books.)
    • These are so beautiful! Thank you for the flowers. (These replaces flowers.)
  2. Use these to refer to something that is physically nearby. This and these are both used to refer to something that is closer to the speaker. You can use these to draw particular attention to items.[2]
    Use These and Those Step 1.jpg
    • These books on the shelf belong to Rajeev. [The books are near the speaker.]
    • Look at all these bracelets on my wrist! [The bracelets are on the speaker's wrist, so they're nearby.]
    • Who put these cupcakes in the refrigerator? [Presumably, the speaker is close to the cupcakes.]
  3. Use these to describe when something is figuratively nearby. This and these are also used to express figurative distances, particularly distances having to do with time. Use these when something is happening in the present, has happened in the recent past, or will happen in the near future.[3]
    Use These and Those Step 5.jpg
    • These shows I've been watching are absolutely extraordinary. [The shows have been watched in the recent past.]
    • Have you seen these letters to the editor in today's news? [The letters have been published in today's newspaper.]
    • Why don't you take these books with you when you go? [The books will be taken by the other person in the near future.]
  4. Use these to introduce people to others. If you are introducing more than one person to someone else, you can use these to begin your sentence.[4]
    • For example: "These are my classmates, Sean and Adrienne."
    • However, in English we do not use these to refer directly to people: "These are Sean and Adrienne" is incorrect. Instead, you would say "This is Sean and this is Adrienne."
    • If introducing yourself, as when answering the phone, use this: "Hello, this is Chang."

Using Those Correctly

  1. Use "those" to replace nouns that are farther away in space and time. If the noun you are referring to is far from you, either physically or figuratively, you can replace it with those
    Use These and Those Step 8.jpg
    • That man over there is holding three chocolate bars. Do you want all of those? (Those replaces chocolate bars.)
    • Would you like to borrow some books ? Take those over there on the shelf. (Those replaces books.)
    • Those were so beautiful! Thank you for the flowers you gave me yesterday. (Those replaces flowers.)
  2. Use those when something is physically far away (relatively speaking). That and those are both used to refer to something that is farther away from the speaker. This distance can be literal or more figurative. Using those can draw attention or emphasis to the noun you're discussing.[5]
    Use These and Those Step 2.jpg
    • Those mountains look really small from here. [The mountains are far away from the speaker.]
    • Could you hand me those boxes on the other side of the room? [The boxes are on the other side of the room.]
    • Why haven't those scientists at NASA found extraterrestrial life? [The speaker may be emphasizing that they don't feel connected to the NASA scientists.]
  3. Use those to describe when something is figuratively more distant. That and those are used to express figurative distances too, particularly distances having to do with time. Use those when something has happened in the relatively distant past or will happen in the relatively distant future.
    Use These and Those Step 6.jpg
    • Those shows I watched last week were absolutely extraordinary. [The shows were watched some time ago.]
    • Did you see those letters to the editor in yesterday's news? [The letters were published in the past.]
    • Why do all those politicians fight so much? [The speaker may be emphasizing a feeling of personal distance from the politicians.]

Usage Chart

Video

Tips

  • If you can't count the number of objects you're talking about (like milk, software, or rain), use this or that.
  • If you can count the number of objects you're talking about (like pencils, sheep, or people) use these' or those.[6]

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Sources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1FfZiF5

How to Divorce in Utah

Utah allows divorce on fault-based grounds, as well as the no-fault grounds of irreconcilable differences.[1] If you want to file for divorce in a Utah court, you must have lived in the state for at least three months. If you have minor children and need the court to decide custody, those children typically must have lived in the state at least six months.[2]

Steps

Filing for Divorce

  1. Consider hiring an attorney. If your divorce is complicated, an attorney can help guide you through the process and ensure everything is done correctly.
    • You may have difficulty going it alone if you have complex child custody or support issues, if you and your spouse have been married for awhile and have a lot of property and joint assets, or if you and your spouse disagree about any of these issues.[3]
  2. Prepare your forms. Rather than physical forms, Utah has an Online Court Assistance Program (OCAP) you can use to prepare the petition and other documents you will need to file for divorce.[4]
    • The online system includes instructions on how to fill out the forms correctly. After you input all the necessary information, the program will personalize the forms for you and prepare all the paperwork you need – the only thing it won't do is file the forms for you.[5][6]
    • When you file the forms, you also will be charged a $20 document preparation fee for using the OCAP service.[7]
  3. Sign your divorce forms in the presence of a notary. Once you've finished preparing your forms and printed them, you must sign them in front of a notary public.
    • If you're unsure where to find a notary, check your bank – many banks offer notary services free of charge to their customers. You also may find notaries in private businesses such as check-cashing services, or at the courthouse.
  4. File your divorce forms. To open your divorce case, you must file your forms in the clerk's office of the court in the county where you live.
    • The clerk will charge you a $310 filing fee (plus the $20 document preparation fee if you used OCAP).[8] If you can't afford the fee, you can file a motion asking the judge to waive them. You'll have to file extensive documentation proving that you are unable to afford the fee, including a detailed description of your income, expenses, debts, and property.[9]
  5. Serve your spouse. Within 120 days after you've filed your initial petition, you must serve your spouse with a copy of the petition, the summons, and all other documents you filed.[10]
    • You can either mail the documents using certified mail, or have the sheriff's department or a private process serving company provide service for you for a fee.
    • After the other party has been served, you must file a proof of service document. The court won't act on your petition until all parties to the action have been served.[11]
  1. Wait for an answer. After you serve your spouse, he has 21 days to file a response to your petition. This time is extend to 30 days if he lives in another state.[12]
    • If your spouse files an answer, both of you must disclose to each other a Financial Declaration.[13] On this form, each party discloses all income, assets, debt, and expenses both to the court and to each other. In addition, you must attach a number of financial documents, including pay stubs, copies of tax returns for the two tax years before the petition was filed, loan applications, financial statements, real estate appraisals, and other documents pertaining to any item listed on the form.[14]
    • If your spouse does not file an answer within the time specified on his summons, you may ask the court for a default judgment. A default judgment means you get everything you've asked for, and your spouse doesn't have an opportunity to protest or tell his side of the story.[15]
    • Instead of a response contesting your petition, your spouse also may file a written stipulation that he agrees to the divorce. If you agree on the terms of the divorce, you can answer the questions in the OCAP Stipulation Interview and prepare agreed documents. However, you can only do this after you've filed a petition and served it on your spouse.[16]

Attending Divorce Education and Mediation

  1. Complete the 90-day waiting period. Utah law generally requires a period of 90 days between the date you file the petition and the date the judge signs your final order, regardless of whether you and your spouse agree.[17]
  2. Take divorce education classes. The state requires couples with minor children to attend a divorce orientation class and a divorce education class before divorce is granted.[18]
    • You must pay a $30 fee to attend the classes, which you can attend online. The fee is discounted by $15 if you attend the class in person within 30 days of the day the petition is filed.[19]
    • The orientation course educates parents about divorce and its alternatives, including resources to improve the marriage and resolve custody issues, along with procedural alternatives to divorce.
    • The education course discusses how children experience divorce, ways to communicate, and how parents can help their children, among other issues.[20]
  3. Comply with mandatory mediation. If your spouse files an answer, Utah law requires you to attend at least one mediation session to attempt to resolve your differences.
    • You and your spouse are responsible for finding a mediator and paying for their services. You can request a list of qualified mediators by calling the Divorce Mediation Help Line at 1-800-620-6318.[21]
    • If you do not feel safe attending mediation or feel you won't be able to fully express yourself due to an extreme level of conflict between you and your spouse, you can apply to have the mediation requirement waived.[22]
  4. Request a temporary order. If you need the court to resolve certain issues such as use of the marital home or child custody and support while the divorce is pending, you can request a temporary order that will remain into effect until the judge signs your final divorce order.[23]

Going to Trial

  1. Request a child custody evaluation. If you have outstanding issues regarding child custody and support and you and your spouse cannot agree, you can get a professional evaluator to perform a child custody evaluation and report her findings to the court.
    • Either party may request an evaluation, or a judge may order one even if neither party requests it.
    • These evaluations may be expensive. Typically, the cost is split among both parents.[24]
    • The custody evaluator observes and considers many factors related to the best interest of the child, the standard courts use to make child custody decisions. The evaluator reports on the child's preference, bonds with each parent, the parents' moral character, religious compatibility with the child, financial conditions, and other factors.[25]
  2. Attend the pre-trial conference. Before the court schedules a trial, you must attend a pre-trial conference and make one last attempt to settle your case.
    • If you cannot come to a resolution, you will schedule a trial and determine which issues need to be determined at trial.[26]
  3. Prepare for your final hearing. After your pre-trial conference, the court will schedule a full trial to make a final decision if you and your spouse still have unresolved issues.[27]
    • Before your hearing, try to go to the courtroom where your hearing will be held and observe another hearing so you have some idea of what to expect.
    • Collect all of your documents and evidence you intend to present and organize them neatly so you can find anything you need without shuffling a lot of papers or taking up time unnecessarily.
    • Have at least four documents of any items you bring, if possible, so each party, the judge, and any witness can have their own copy to look at.[28]
    • Review the court map and make sure you know how to get to your courtroom. If necessary, go to the courthouse early and find it so you can make sure you know where you're going.
  4. Attend your final hearing. Appear in court at the designated date and time of your hearing, dressed professionally and conservatively with all documents and witnesses you intend to present.[29]
    • Plan on getting there at least 30 minutes early so you have time to go through security, find your courtroom, and take a seat. You don't want to be rushed.
    • Leave any cell phones, electronic devices, or other items that might be confiscated at home.[30]
    • When your case is called, stand and identify yourself to the judge. Remain standing while the judge speaks to you. Treat the judge with respect, and don't interrupt her or speak out of turn.
    • The judge will give each spouse the opportunity to present their story. Don't interrupt or argue with your spouse while he is talking. If the judge has any questions for you based on what he said, he will ask you once your spouse is finished speaking.[31]
  5. Get copies of the final decree. You are not legally divorced until the judge signs the decree. Once the decree is finalized, you should get copies for your records.
    • The judge may announce her decision at the conclusion of the hearing, or you may get it later. You should call the clerk's office if you haven't received a final written decree 60 days after your hearing.[32]
    • If you disagree with the judge's decision, you have 30 days to file an appeal.[33]

Sources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1MQqPil

How to Make Hard Boiled Eggs in the Oven

Boiling eggs is for your grandma. This way is so deliciously fool-proof that the entire article could be, "Throw them in the oven." But don't do that. Avoid the boiling water and the timers and the fuss and read on.

Steps

Baking Your Eggs

  1. Preheat your oven to 325º Fahrenheit (163ºC). If your oven is a little on the weak side or if you're baking a dozen large ones, you might want to vamp it up to 350ºF (177ºC).

  2. Get your eggs and put them into the muffin tin. If you have a mini muffin tin, even better. They won't roll around as much.

    • If you're not using the entirety of the pan, put the eggs in the center. When the weight of the tin is balanced, it's easier to maneuver.
  3. Once at temperature, put your muffin tin into the oven and set your timer for 30 minutes. Go watch an episode of your favorite TV show, read a chapter of that book you've been meaning to finish, or, heck, jog around the block. Your work here is done. And who said you couldn't cook?

    • When you bake eggs, the shells get little brown dots. This is totally fine! When you soak them in water the brown spots should all disappear.

Finishing Them Off

  1. Before time is up, prepare a bowl of ice water large enough to contain the eggs. This keeps the eggs from cooking more and turning that nasty shade of green around the yolk. It'll also speed up the time you'll spend waiting for them to cool down and peel them.

  2. Immediately put the eggs in the ice water once they are removed from the oven. They'll be very hot -- use tongs to avoid burning your fingers. Let them sit in the cold water for 10 minutes.

  3. Remove them from the water and peel them. Their peels should just about slide right off. You'll never boil eggs again. Eat them whole, make 'em deviled, turn them into a salad, and save the rest for later.

    • Keep this in mind for when Easter comes around! Baking batches of eggs for dying is completely stress-free this way.


Video

Tips

  • This is a great method for making eggs for deviled eggs. There are fewer destroyed eggs than when you boil them.
  • The eggs are much easier to peel without 'skinning' them using this method (as opposed to boiling).
  • Your eggs may have some brown dots on them when they come out of the oven, but that will go away in the cold water rinse.

Things You'll Need

  • Muffin tin(s)
  • Container of ice cold water
  • Tongs

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dimanche 29 novembre 2015

How to Tame Your Gerbils

Gerbils are shy, inquisitive, and affectionate members of the rodent family that live throughout the world.[1] If you take the time to properly tame your gerbils, they may be less likely to be shy or aggressive and instead provide much love and fun to you and your family.

Steps

Preparing to Tame Your Gerbil

  1. Understand the temperament of gerbils. Before you can tame a gerbil, it’s important to learn about their temperament. While they are loving animals, they can also be shy and aggressive if they are scared. Understanding your gerbil can help you successfully tame it.
    • Gerbils are naturally shy but are social, inquisitive, and can bond well with their human family. They don’t like to be left alone or isolated.[2]
    • Gerbils are very curious and active. If you have more than one gerbil, they will likely play with each other all day.[3]
    • Gerbils are very territorial and you’ll want to be careful introducing a new gerbil to your home or an already existing gerbil community.[4]
    • Gerbils rarely bite and only may exhibit this kind of aggression if they are scared.[5]
    • Unlike other rodents such as rats, mice, or hamsters, gerbils don’t produce the same bad odors.[6]
  2. Prepare your gerbil’s home. Purchase a cage that will fit your gerbil or gerbils before you obtain the animals. Having their “home” prepared and inviting will help you tame them more effectively.
    Tame Your Gerbils Step 2.jpg
    • Place their cage in an area of the house with medium traffic so that you don’t startle your gerbil with too much activity. Gerbils are curious and like to watch and be part of the action. They also need to get used to the fact that humans make noise and motion.[7]
    • Fill the gerbil cage with bedding such as corn cob or pine or aspen shavings.[8] You can use alfalfa grass as a filler with any of these bedding options.[9]
    • Gerbils eat a mix of rodent pellets, seeds, fruits and vegetables, and insects. Keep a variety of food for them in the cage.[10] Make sure you also put a water bottle in the cage so that your gerbil doesn’t get dehydrated.[11] However, gerbils originated as a desert dwelling creature, so don't expect to see your gerbil drinking a lot.
    • Purchase accessories for the cage that will allow your gerbils to chew, hide, and indulge their curiosity.[12]
    • Gerbils are clean animals and you’ll need to keep your gerbil’s cage clean to keep him happy and healthy.[13]
  3. Get your gerbils. Buy a pair of young gerbils. If you buy one gerbil it will be more work, in particular since there is less entertainment, so consider getting two. The younger the gerbil is, the more success you are likely to have taming your gerbils.
    Tame Your Gerbils Step 1.jpg
    • Don’t get a gerbil under 5 weeks of age to help ensure that they’ve had enough time with their mother and are healthy.
    • Buy your gerbils from a reputable breeder if possible. This can also help ensure that your gerbil is healthy and doesn’t have any deformities from inbreeding.[14]
    • Check to make sure your gerbil choices are healthy. The coat should be fully and glossy, the eyes bright and shiny, the nose clean, and the teeth straight.[15] If you notice any problems, ask the breeder or decide on another gerbil that appears healthier.
  4. Allow the gerbils to settle into your home. Moving a gerbil into a new space from another home is traumatic for the animal. Although your instinct may be to take them out and play, allow them some time to recuperate and settle into their new surroundings. This may help you tame them more effectively as well.[16]
    Tame Your Gerbils Step 3.jpg
    • Your gerbil may need a few hours to a few days in their new home for a few days before you start trying to handle them. Otherwise, they'll be too stressed to tame.
  5. Make a taming plan. Develop a plan that you can follow consistently since it requires time and patience to tame your gerbil.[17] Making a plan will give you a chance to consider your gerbil’s personality and different factors that may affect the process, such as if your gerbil is older or a baby.
    • Keep the training fun for your gerbil and you. Even something as simple as running on your lap can be fun for a gerbil.[18]
    • When developing your training plan, make sure to keep your gerbil’s personality in mind. Some gerbil’s will naturally jump onto your arm while others may take time to get used to you.[19]
    • Since training is something you need to do regularly and over time, set short- and long-term goals. You can develop your plan by setting daily, weekly, and monthly intentions or goals for your gerbil.
    • For example, you could have the goal one week of getting your gerbil to jump into your hands without smelling you first. Make a plan over the course of the week to expose your gerbil to your scent and your personality. Remember to keep the exposure short and consider giving your gerbil a treat to warm him up.[20].
    • It’s important that you can commit time over a longer period to taming your gerbil. Gerbil taming doesn’t happen overnight and requires consistency.[21]

Training Your Gerbil

  1. Start your gerbil taming as soon as possible. From babies to older animals, gerbils respond well to taming with the proper guidance from early on in your relationship. Follow the taming plan you wrote to help you stay on track with the process.
    • Gerbils of any age respond to taming.[22]
    • If your gerbil is older, it’s important to not be discouraged if he takes longer to tame. You can tame him as soon as he joins your family. Just know that it may take a little more time, effort, and patience on your part.[23]
    • Remember that gerbils can be intelligent and loyal companions. Proper communication and behaviors with your gerbil will help you to train him at any age.[24]
  2. Wash your hands before you handle your gerbils. Gerbils are very sensitive to smells and before you handle them, you need to thoroughly wash your hands. This can help calm your gerbil and make him more likely to jump on to your hands to play.[25]
    • Don’t use a soap that is too perfumed so that it doesn’t turn off your gerbil.
  3. Gain your gerbil’s initial trust. Before you can handle your gerbil frequently, gain his trust. This is a simple process that requires you to put your hands in the cage often.
    Tame Your Gerbils Step 6.jpg
    • Put your hands in the cage often to clean it or allow your gerbil to sniff you. He may or may not jump into your hand.[26]
    • Make sure your gerbil knows you’re around before you put your hand in the cage so that you don’t startle your animal.[27]
    • It may help your gerbil to trust you if you put a few seeds in your hand when you place it in the cage.[28]
    • Remember to remain calm as gerbils can smell adrenaline in your sweat.[29]
  4. Hold your gerbil. Once you’ve gained your gerbil’s trust, you can start to hold him more often. By staying calm and handling your gerbil properly, you can hold him for hours or let him explore you for fun.[30]
    Tame Your Gerbils Step 4.jpg
    • Just as with gaining a gerbil’s trust, it’s important to stay calm and not panic when you hold your animal.[31]
    • It’s very important to handle your gerbil properly so that you don’t scare or injure him.[32]
    • Scoop up your gerbil with both hands and hold gently and securely. You can put some seeds in your hands to help your gerbil settle down.[33]
    • You can pick up your gerbil with one hand as you get more experienced. Never pick up a gerbil by his tail as this can injure him.[34]
    • When you pick up your gerbil, it may help to turn away from their tank or cage. This sometimes calms small animals because they don't see the place they want to get back to (to feel safe), so they don't desperately scrabble to get back.
    • Be aware that there are some gerbils that don’t like to be held. Try and work with shy gerbils and let them know you’re there to take care of them.[35]
  5. Socialize your gerbil. One important component of training your gerbil is exposing him to other gerbils and people. This will keep him happy and comfortable in any situation, and less likely to be aggressive. It will also make help tame him.
    Tame Your Gerbils Step 8.jpg
    • Gerbils may act aggressively towards other animals and people and this behavior can be prevented with proper socialization.[36]
    • Help your gerbil be comfortable around people by exposing him to positive and calm situations with other individuals.[37] Tell any new people to allow your gerbil to sniff them first so the animal is less likely to feel threatened.[38]
    • Socialize your gerbil by taking him out of the cage and letting him explore. It’s also important to invite people to your house so that your gerbil is comfortable having other people visit his home.[39]
    • Keep every aspect of socialization calm and positive.[40]
    • If you are introducing two new gerbils, place them in a clean space free of scent. This will help them get used to one another and be less likely to exhibit aggressive behaviors.[41]
  6. Be patient and calm with your gerbil. Patience is the most important and hardest part of taming a gerbil. If you are calm and happy, your gerbil will be calm and happy.[42]
    Tame Your Gerbils Step 10.jpg
    • You will be most successful at taming your gerbil if you are patient with him. If you keep your time together fun for both you and your gerbil, you’re more likely to be patient with him.
    • Yelling or physical punishment will only counteract your taming, and also may cause your gerbil to fear you and other people.[43]
  7. Use positive reinforcement and avoid physical discipline and yelling. Rewarding your gerbil for his positive behaviors is an integral part of the taming process. Understand that your gerbil may make occasional mistakes and that you must avoid physical discipline or yelling at him in these situations.
    Tame Your Gerbils Step 5.jpg
    • Positive reinforcement trains your gerbil by rewarding the actions you want him to repeat, such as jumping in to your hands.[44]
    • Reward your gerbil with treats such as seeds or fruit.[45]
  8. React to behaviors promptly. Your gerbil may occasionally nip you or won’t want to be held. It’s important to react to your gerbil’s behaviors promptly. You will reinforce taming by doing this, and also ensure that your gerbil doesn’t fear you or other people because you disciplined him improperly.
    Tame Your Gerbils Step 9.jpg
    • It is counterproductive to verbally or physically punish your gerbil. This will only cause him to be fearful and confused and may even discourage him becoming tame.[46]
    • For example, if your gerbil nips you, use a firm “no” to let him know this isn’t an acceptable behavior.[47]
    • Never hit, yell at, or blow in a gerbil’s face. Also don’t drench them with water. Not only are these measure counterproductive to taming your gerbil, but can also cause serious health issues such as seizures.[48]
  9. Enjoy your gerbil! Gerbils are sweet animals that can be a lot of fun. Making sure that you enjoy can help you tame your gerbil.

Tips

  • Stroke your gerbil gently and speak to him in a soft voice.
  • Never squeeze your gerbil.
  • Never lift your gerbil by the tail.
  • Hold 2 gerbils at a time when they are in your hand. Gerbils are more comfortable when they are together.
  • Give them a treat if they have something good.

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How to Antique Brass

New brass is a shiny golden color, but over time it darkens and takes on a green, brown, or reddish patina. If you prefer the appearance of older brass, there are several ways to hasten or imitate aging. Read on to discover which method to select for your purposes, and how to prepare your brass beforehand to ensure the antiquing process works.

Steps

Preparing the Brass

  1. Make sure the object is brass. Some other metals look similar to brass, but will respond differently to these aging methods. The wrong treatment could corrode your object, so take your object to an antique shop or other expert if you can't identify it yourself.
    Antique Brass Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • Clean brass has a bright, golden brown appearance. The most similar metals in appearance are copper, which is brown or pink-brown, and bronze, which is a much darker brown.[1]
    • Brass is slightly magnetic, but should only respond noticeably to a powerful magnet. If a small magnet sticks firmly to the surface, you probably have an object made from a different metal, then plated with a thin layer of brass.
  2. Learn what to do if your object is not brass. If your object is only brass-plated, try using a gentle treatment such as vinegar or salt water, as harsher materials may corrode through the thin brass layer. If you are trying to age copper, see these linked instructions. To antique bronze, purchase a "bronze ager" and follow the Using Antiquing Solution method.
    Antique Brass Step 2 Version 2.jpg
  3. If the brass is lacquered, remove it with nail polish remover. Lacquer is a clear, hard, protective finish that prevents the brass from oxidizing, which is the aging process you're trying to encourage or imitate. Apply the nail polish remover, also known as acetone, to the object to strip off the lacquer.[2]
    Antique Brass Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Wear rubber gloves and work in a ventilated area to avoid inhaling fumes.
    • Let small objects soak in the acetone.
    • Use a paintbrush to brush the chemical onto large objects. Be sure to coat every corner of the object.
    • Methyl alcohol, paint remover, or lacquer thinner will also do the job.[3]
  4. Pour hot water over the object after treating it with nail polish remover. Wait a few minutes or until the lacquer is peeling off or dissolving into goo. Wash the object in hot water to remove the lacquer
    Antique Brass Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    • Check to make sure there is no remaining lacquer. Modern brass objects are often protected with tough lacquer that can take several attempts to remove entirely.
  5. If there is a thin protective film or no finish at all, wash with gentler materials. If the object feels greasy or has a thin layer of polish on it, you can probably clean it with a cloth soaked in rubbing alcohol or a 50/50 mix of vinegar and water. For completely untreated brass, a thorough wash with soap and water should be enough to prepare it for antiquing.
    Antique Brass Step 5 Version 2.jpg
    • Wear gloves even when using these skin-safe cleaning products, since oils from your hand can get on the brass and prevent the antiquing effect from taking place evenly.
  6. Dry completely before continuing. Do not begin the antiquing process until the brass is completely dry. A hair dryer, propane torch, or oven can speed up this process.[4]
    Antique Brass Step 6 Version 2.jpg
    • Be cautious when applying heat to a brass object that recently had its lacquer removed. If you missed a piece of lacquer, it could catch on fire or release fumes. Dry the brass in a well-ventilated area with no flammable objects nearby.
    • You can now use any of the methods described below. If you're unsure which to use, read the first step of each one to learn the benefits of each option.

Using Salt Water or Vinegar

  1. Use vinegar or salt water to antique your brass safely and easily. Any type of household vinegar or even table salt in water can be used to antique brass. This can take longer to take effect than the other methods — several hours for vinegar, and up to several days with salt water— but you do not have to handle any dangerous chemicals and probably already have the necessary ingredients in your kitchen.
    Antique Brass Step 7 Version 2.jpg
    • Prepare the brass first as described above to ensure the antiquing succeeds.
    • Wear rubber gloves for any method to prevent getting oil on the brass.
  2. Apply salt water to make brass slightly darker. A mix of equal parts table salt and water will oxidize the brass, simply speeding up the natural aging process brass undergoes. Apply it with a small paintbrush over the entire surface and reapply daily until you've achieved the appearance you enjoy.[5]
    Antique Brass Step 8 Version 2.jpg
  3. Coat with vinegar instead for more pronounced aging. Apply with a brush or simply dip the piece in any type of vinegar. Allow it to dry, then apply an additional coat if you'd like a darker color.
    Antique Brass Step 9 Version 2.jpg
    • Mix a spoonful of table salt into the vinegar for a greener patina.[6]
    • Heating the brass with a hair dryer or oven to around 450ºF (230ºC) will produce more noticeable results, but you'll need oven mitts or thick gardener gloves to handle it at this temperature.[7]
  4. Use vinegar vapors for a warm brown appearance. This may not achieve the authentic appearance that ammonia or antiquing solution will, but some people prefer the "gingerbread" appearance that results.[8] In any case, it is certainly safer and less expensive than those methods.
    Antique Brass Step 10 Version 2.jpg
    • Pour some vinegar into a plastic bucket with an airtight lid.
    • Place wooden blocks or other objects into the bucket so a stable, flat surface is dry above the level of the vinegar.
    • Place the brass on top of the objects.
    • Seal the lid to trap the vinegar fumes and let them alter the brass for several hours or overnight.
  5. Whichever method you used, wash with warm water and dry. Once the result you want is achieved, which may take several applications, wash the brass in warm water. Dry it gently with a towel or by applying heat.
    Antique Brass Step 11 Version 2.jpg
    • Once it is dry, you have the option to preserve its color by coating with a brass lacquer or wax.

Using an Antiquing Solution Product

  1. To age brass rapidly, purchase an antiquing solution. This is the quickest of all methods, but it does require you to purchase a specialized product. These are sold as antiquing solutions or brass agers. The specific brand will determine the appearance of the antiqued piece, but the process should be similar regardless.[9]
    Antique Brass Step 12 Version 2.jpg
    • Always follow the instructions for Preparing Your Brass before beginning any antiquing method.
    • This is not a good method to follow if you're not certain that your piece is solid brass. See Using Vinegar or Salt Water instead.
  2. Use rubber gloves, safety goggles, and good ventilation. Antiquing solutions can be made with a variety of chemicals, most of which can damage skin and eyes or release toxic fumes. Protect yourself with basic safety equipment and open the windows before you begin.
    Antique Brass Step 13 Version 2.jpg
    • Be especially careful if your product contains any of these hazardous chemicals: ammonium hydroxide, glacial acetic acid, nitric acid, or sulfuric acid.[10]
  3. Dilute the antiquing solution according to the manufacturer's instructions. Read the label carefully. Some solutions may not require diluting, whereas others require as much as 10 parts water to 1 part antiquing solution. Use room temperature water and mix in a ceramic or plastic container large enough to submerge the entire brass object.[11]
    Antique Brass Step 14 Version 2.jpg
    • Do not use container made from other materials, as the acids in the solution could corrode them.
    • Do not fill the container too full. Leave room to fit the brass object without the container overflowing.
  4. While wearing gloves, agitate the brass object beneath the surface of the antiquing solution. Hold the brass in the solution and move back and forth to dislodge air bubbles. Make sure the solution covers the entire object, but doesn't reach near the top of your gloves.
    Antique Brass Step 15 Version 2.jpg
    • Air bubbles that remain on the brass will cause bright spots where the brass was not aged.[12]
    • Turn the brass object in your gloves so you get even exposure to the solution.
  5. Watch the color change and pull out when the desired color is reached. It should take between a few seconds and a couple minutes to begin changing colors, moving from pink to red to brown to black. Pull it out when you see the color you're aiming for.
    Antique Brass Step 16 Version 2.jpg
    • If you plan to brighten your object with highlighting (see below), let it get slightly darker than the color you want.[13]
    • Don't worry that you'll ruin your brass. If you pulled it out too early, simply put it back and shake again. If you pulled it out too late, scrub with a scotch-brite pad or lightly with steel wool to remove the color so you can try again.
  6. Rinse the object to highlight (optional). Rinse with hot water and clean off the resulting white powder using a sponge or scotch-brite pad. This results in a brighter, accented object compared to the darker, even patina it had immediately after treatment.
    Antique Brass Step 17 Version 2.jpg
    • If you are trying to create a black or almost black patina, you'll have better results getting the patina to stay if you dip it in two or three stages, rinsing between each one.
  7. Dry evenly. Once you are satisfied with the color, immediately dry the whole object. Wet patches will dry darker than the rest of the surface. You may want to use a paper towel or rag, since some color could rub off onto it.
    Antique Brass Step 18 Version 2.jpg
  8. Treat with lacquer or wax to preserve the current color (optional). Applying a brass lacquer or other brass finishing treatment will prevent the brass from aging further. This is recommended if the brass is handled frequently or if you want to preserve the current color.
    Antique Brass Step 19 Version 2.jpg

Using Ammonia Fumes

  1. Apply ammonia periodically to produce the most natural aged appearance. Ammonia is a caustic substance that should be treated with caution, but it does come closer than any other method to creating the green brown appearance of naturally aged brass.
    Antique Brass Step 20 Version 2.jpg
    • Ammonia will eventually evaporate off the brass, so you'll need to commit to repeating this process every time your brass returns to its old appearance. How long this takes depends on the exact qualities of your object.
    • This process will not succeed if you do not follow the steps for Preparing Your Brass beforehand.
  2. Buy ammonia and a sealable bucket from a hardware store. You'll need "full strength" or "clear" ammonia, not the dilute household ammonia more commonly sold at supermarkets. The hardware store is also a good place to buy a plastic bucket with airtight sealable lid, sometimes called "pickle buckets".[14][15]
    Antique Brass Step 21 Version 2.jpg
    • For tiny pieces of brass, you can use a glass bottle with airtight cap instead of a bucket. Tie it with a cord and suspend it over a small amount of ammonia, screwing the cap firmly to hold the cord in place and trap the ammonia fumes.
  3. Wear rubber gloves, safety goggles, and work only in areas with excellent ventilation. Ammonia fumes are toxic and should never be inhaled. Work outside if possible or in a room with great air flow.
    Antique Brass Step 22 Version 2.jpg
  4. Place a wooden block in the bottom of the bucket. You should create a stable, flat "shelf" large enough for the brass object to sit on. Use a piece of plywood for large objects, stacked on top of several pieces of wood to make it stable.
    Antique Brass Step 23 Version 2.jpg
  5. Pour ammonia into the bucket. Keep the ammonia level below the upper surface of the wood. You don't need too much, although more ammonia may hasten the process.
    Antique Brass Step 24 Version 2.jpg
  6. Place the brass objects on the wooden "shelf". Make sure they are stable and in no danger of falling into the ammonia. If they do, remove it with gloved hands and wash in warm water. Dry before returning to the wooden bucket.
    Antique Brass Step 25 Version 2.jpg
  7. Seal the lid and check back periodically. Depending on the temperature and humidity, freshness of the ammonia, and exact characteristics of your brass, the antiquing could take hours to take effect. Check back every hour or so to see how its progressing, taking care not to breathe the fumes that escape the bucket.
    Antique Brass Step 26 Version 2.jpg
    • Open the lid slightly for a quick glance, then close it tightly to keep most of the ammonia fumes in.
  8. Let the brass dry in a ventilated area. Once the desired color is reached, let it dry naturally in an area with flowing air. Wax it if you want a more polished effect.
    Antique Brass Step 27.jpg
    • The aging effect of ammonia is only temporary, so you probably don't want to lacquer the brass since you would eventually need to remove the lacquer to re-antique the brass.
    • You can use the same ammonia bath to treat other brass objects, but not indefinitely. Eventually the ammonia's potency will be used up and you will need to replace it.[16]

Video

Tips

    • Whichever method you followed, you can apply a brass wax or lacquer to the object once it is dry to prevent it from aging further.
    • If you have the proper lab equipment and chemistry experience, you can make your own antiquing solution. Test out a new solution on a small corner before applying to the entire object, as this list is compiled from a variety of sources.
    • Another method of applying ammonia is to place the brass object in a garbage bag containing a rag soaked in ammonia, then twist it tight. This is easier but not otherwise recommended, as it will only create a light patina, and can result in an uneven finish if the climate is hot and humid.[17]

Warnings

  • Do not use Clorox or sodium hypochlorite solutions to antique brass. It is more dangerous and more difficult to control than the methods described here.[18]
  • If you aren't sure whether an object is brass, take it to an antique shop owner or other expert for identification. Bronze, copper, or brass-plated objects could be damaged by the antiquing treatment.
  • If a magnet attaches to your "brass" object, it is most likely a different metal beneath a brass plating. This can still be antiqued, but you should be gentle when scrubbing and use small amounts of chemicals during the antiquing. Treating it too roughly could eat through the plating and reveal the other metal underneath.[19]

Things You'll Need

Preparing the Brass:

  • Brass object
  • Rubber gloves
  • Acetone, lacquer thinner, or paint remover (if object is lacquered)
  • Vinegar, rubbing alcohol, or soap and water (if object is not lacquered)
  • Heat source (to speed up drying)
  • Small magnet (if identification is unsure)

Using Vinegar or Salt Water:

  • Rubber gloves
  • Table salt or vinegar (any type)
  • Water
  • Small paintbrush
  • Plastic bucket with airtight lid (optional)

Using an Antiquing Solution:

  • Brass antiquing solution or brass ager
  • Water
  • Ceramic or plastic container
  • Safety goggles
  • Rubber gloves
  • Well ventilated area
  • Scotch-brite pad or plastic kitchen scrubber
  • Towel

Using Ammonia Vapors:

  • Plastic bucket with airtight lid
  • Well ventilated area
  • Ammonia
  • Rubber gloves
  • Safety goggles

Related wikiHows

Sources and Citations


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How to Get Rid of Teenage Acne

Approximately 85% of all teens deal with acne to one degree or another.[1] Contrary to popular belief, no link has been found between diet and acne.[2] The actual cause is due to hormonal changes in teenagers, which produce additional facial oils. Most of these cases are basic and can be cleared up with a daily washing regimen that combats the extra facial oil. However, some cases may be severe or persistent enough to warrant a trip to the dermatologist.

Steps

Using over-the-Counter Treatments

  1. Keep hair clean. This step is especially important for teens with long hair. Oily hair or hair products in constant contact with the face can help clog pores. Even those with short hair can see blemishes around the hairline due to oily hair or hair products. Ensure hair is cleaned regularly.[3]
    Get Rid of Teenage Acne Step 01.jpg
  2. Wash twice daily. One of the biggest causes of teenage acne is increased oil production based on hormonal changes. Washing your face once a day can still leave oil behind to clog pores. Instead wash once in the morning and once in the evening with warm water and a mild oil-free cleanser.[4]
    Get Rid of Teenage Acne Step 02.jpg
    • Use clean fingertips and not a washcloth to clean your face.[5]
    • Do not use a regular bar soap or body wash. Always use a gentle scrub especially formulated for facial skin.
    • Do not over wash. Washing the face more than twice a day can dry out the skin, which can actually cause the oil glands to go into overdrive production and make the acne worse.[6]
    • It can take anywhere from four-to-eight weeks of a daily regimen before you notice a significant difference.[7]
  3. Use over-the-counter medications. Depending on the severity of your acne, you should also use an over-the-counter medication once or twice a day. The two most commonly used OTC acne treatments are benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid.[8]
    Get Rid of Teenage Acne Step 03.jpg
    • OTC medications come in gels, lotions, creams, soaps, and pads.[9] Gels and creams are good for spot treatments of problem areas whereas pads, soaps, and lotions are more commonly used on the entire face.
    • In addition to clearing pores, these medications have slight antibacterial qualities that make it more difficult for the acne-causing p. acnes bacteria.[10]
    • Benzoyl peroxide formulations are usually a 2.5% solution and salicylic acid formulations are usually 2% solutions.[11]
  4. Apply a moisturizer. Since the additional washing and OTC medications can dry out skin, you want to add a daily moisturizer to your regimen. A standard lotion can have oils that will clog pores as well, so find an oil-free moisturizer that is nonacnegenic or non-comedogenic.[12] These words simply mean that the product will not cause acne or clog pores.
    Get Rid of Teenage Acne Step 04.jpg
    • If you apply a moisturizer for daytime use, then you should find one with an SPF of 30 as well.[13]
  5. Use non-comedogenic cosmetics. While certain cosmetics like eye makeup and lipstick aren’t likely to cause acne trouble, others such as blushes and foundations can clog pores and worsen acne.[14] Make sure than any cosmetics applied to other parts of the face say they are non-comedogenic, which means that they will not clog pores. All major brands provide such products, so they are not difficult to find.[15]
    Get Rid of Teenage Acne Step 05.jpg
    • Mineral-based makeup powders can also cause or exacerbate acne, so they should be avoided as well.[16]

Treating Persistent or Severe Cases

  1. Consult a dermatologist. If you have persistent acne that doesn’t respond to the first method or if you have severe, cystic acne, then you should consider meeting with a dermatologist who can prescribe other medications.
    Get Rid of Teenage Acne Step 06.jpg
  2. Ask about birth control. For many women, certain birth control medications can help regulate acne-causing hormones. Since hormones are the initial cause of acne, regulating these hormones can lead to decreased breakouts.[17]
    Get Rid of Teenage Acne Step 07.jpg
  3. Ask about acne-treating antibiotics. Oral antibiotics can decrease the amount of the p. acnes bacteria on your skin, which can decrease inflammation.[18] Oral or topical antibiotics may be one of the first treatments that a dermatologist recommends for persistent acne.
    Get Rid of Teenage Acne Step 08.jpg
    • Antibiotic treatments will usually require daily dosages for four-to-six months. After which point, they will be tapered off.[19]
  4. Ask about other topical prescription options. In addition to some topical antibiotics, a dermatologist may want to prescribe other topical medications. These can range from prescription-strength benzoyl peroxide to azelaic acid[20] or tazarotene.[21]
    Get Rid of Teenage Acne Step 09.jpg
    • Most of these medications are meant to reduce skin lesions and inflammation associated with acne.
  5. Ask about isotretinoin. Isotretinoin is one of the most effective acne treatments available. However, it’s also the medication with some of the worst side effects and usage is closely monitored.[22] Isotretinoin actually shrinks the size of oil glands, which causes them to produce less oil.[23]
    Get Rid of Teenage Acne Step 10.jpg
    • Side effects of isotretinoin include increased risk of depression, and it has also been tied to birth defects, so women who are pregnant will not be prescribed the medication.
    • The medication is typically taken once or twice a day for sixteen-to-twenty weeks with results that are often permanent.[24]

Tips

  • Don't use a regular lotion as moisturizer. It can also clog pores, make sure you use something for your face.
  • Since a cleaning regiment can take several weeks to produce a significant difference, you’ll have to stick with it and have patience.
  • Don't use just any soap as your cleanser. Hand and regular bar soap will clog pores and make acne worse.
  • Make sure to wash your face shortly after exercise, sports practice, or any other activity that can lead to clogged pores from sweating.
  • Do not pick at or squeeze blemishes. In addition to causing inflammation, you can spread around acne-causing bacteria.[25]
  • Don't sleep with make-up on. Make sure to wash your face with water and use facial wipes.
  • When you wash your face, always put cold water on it as soon as you're done as this will close the pores and will stop bacteria or germs getting into the pores.

Warnings

  • Isotretinoin use should always be closely monitored. Women who have the risk of becoming pregnant should not take the drug, and anyone who starts feeling symptoms of depression while taking the drug should consult with their dermatologist immediately.

Things You'll Need

  • You will need a gentle cleanser. It doesn't have to be a cleanser that specifically treats acne. As long as it fits your skin type (oily, dry, normal, sensitive, etc.) it will work.
  • A spot treatment such as benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid
  • Moisturizer

Related wikiHows

Sources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1NgjfKZ

How to Deal with a Narcissistic Friend

Dealing with a friend who's a narcissist can be a difficult, frustrating situation. There are two types of narcissists, those who are ma...