dimanche 31 janvier 2016

How to Make a Citrus and Vinegar Household Cleaner

Are you looking for a non-toxic solution to cleaning up household messes or are you in a pinch and don't have any cleaner on hand? You don't need to spend a lot of money on organic cleaners or head to the store; instead, you can make effective and great smelling cleaning fluid at home from two really simple kitchen cupboard ingredients, namely citrus and vinegar.

EditSteps

EditPreparing the Citrus Peels

  1. Peel citrus fruits, such as oranges or lemons. The peels will be mixed with vinegar to create your solution. Either eat the fruit or use it in another recipe.

  2. Fill the bottle or jar with citrus peel. Depending on the size of the opening, you may need to chop the peel to fit. And be sure to fill the entire jar with peel.

EditAdding the Vinegar

  1. Pour the white vinegar into the jar or bottle. Fill almost to the top, leaving enough space needed to cap the bottle or screw on the jar lid.

EditBlending the Mixture

  1. Place the jar or bottle in a cool, dry area. Allow the mixture to blend and “marinate” for approximately 10 days. This will help the essential oils to mix with the vinegar, which not only creates a good odor, but also turns this liquid into a potent cleaner.

EditUsing the Cleaner

  1. Use the citrus vinegar cleaning solution on nearly any surface in the home. However, always test it in an inconspicuous area when using for the first time, especially on wood surfaces before using. This solution may discolor wood, but is usually ideal for cleaning ceramic, stone, porcelain or laminate surfaces.

EditVideo

EditTips

  • The vinegar is an all-purpose cleaning agent that has long been used by household managers to remove grime and any residue; in this solution, it acts as the true cleaning agent. Citrus has the power to cut through grease and dissolve it, helping to add to the cleaning power of the vinegar; it also leaves behind a pleasant odor.
  • Place discarded citrus peel in the garbage disposal to disinfect and deodorize the sink. Or, recycle the orange peel in your organic compost heap!
  • Remove citrus peels from solution after 10 days of use.

EditWarnings

  • Although this solution is non-toxic, it will burn if sprayed directly or near the eyes. Never spray cleaning agents near the face of a person or animal.

EditThings You'll Need

  • A container to hold your cleaning fluid, such as a clear spray bottle, a glass or bottle
  • Citrus fruit or citrus essential oil, such as lemon, lime or orange; or, tea tree oil; if using peel, have enough to fill the container
  • A bottle of white vinegar

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations




source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/182pUc5

How to Make a No Sew Blanket

No sew blankets are straightforward to make and will delight the person who doesn't think much of sewing! Here's how to make light work of creating your own warm blanket in no time.

EditSteps

EditUsing Cuts and Knots

  1. Choose two large pieces of fleece fabric. Fleece is ideal for this method because it is soft, warm, and does not fray. You can use the same color for both pieces of fleece, or contrasting colors. You can even choose a pattern for one piece, and a solid color for the other.
    Make a No Sew Blanket Step 1.jpg
  2. Cut the fabric down to the length you need. Make sure that both pieces match up perfectly. You can make the blanket as large or as small as you like, but keep in mind that fleece rarely comes wider than 60 inches (152.4 centimeters).
    Make a No Sew Blanket Step 2.jpg
    • Consider cutting the fabric about 6 inches (15.24 centimeters) longer and wider than you want it to be. You will be cutting strips into the fabric, and then tying the strips into knots. This will cause the blanket to "shrink" slightly.
  3. Consider adding a cotton or polyester quilt batting. Trim it down so that it is 4 inches (10.16 centimeters) smaller on all four sides of your fleece pieces. Sandwich the battle between the fleece pieces. Make sure that it is centered, so that there is a 4 inch (10.16 centimeters) fleece boarder all around the batting.
  4. Pin the two pieces of fabric together, with the wrong sides facing each other. The right sides should be facing outward. You will be using knots to "sew" the blanket, so you won't have to turn it inside out.
    • Pinning the two pieces together will help keep things even.
  5. Cut 3 inch (7.62 centimeters) squares from each corner. Use sharp, fabric scissors, and be sure to cut through both layers of fleece. This will help create nice, sharp corners once the blanket is done.
    Make a No Sew Blanket Step 3.jpg
    • You can discard the squares you cut out, or save them for another project. You won't need them for the blanket anymore.
  6. Cut slits all around the edges. The slits should be 1 inch (2.54 centimeters) wide and 3 inches (7.62 centimeters) deep. Be sure to cut through both layers of fleece. You will end up with a fringe all around your blanket.
    Make a No Sew Blanket Step 4.jpg
    • Use a ruler to make the measurements exact. If you need to draw some guidelines, use a fabric marker. The ink will either disappear overtime, or the next time you wash the blanket.
  7. Tie all the strips together into a double knot. Take the bottom piece and the top piece and tie them in any knot you like. Try tying the first knot loosely, and the second knot tighter. This will help the blanket keep its shape. Start at one end of the blanket, and go all the way around until you are done.
    Make a No Sew Blanket Step 5.jpg
    • Make sure that you are tying the top strip to the corresponding bottom strip.
    • There is no need to flip the blanket inside out. The knots are part of the decoration.


EditUsing Iron On Seam Tape

  1. Choose two large pieces of fabric. It does not matter what type of fabric you use, as you will be using seam tape to fuse them together. You can use the same color for both pieces, or contrasting colors. You can even choose a pattern for one piece, and a solid color for the other.
    Make a No Sew Blanket Step 1.jpg
  2. Cut the fabric down to the length you need. Make sure that both pieces match up perfectly. You can make the blanket as large or as small as you like, but keep in mind that most fabric rarely comes wider than 60 inches (152.4 centimeters).
    Make a No Sew Blanket Step 2.jpg
  3. Cut four pieces if iron on seam tape. Two of the pieces need to be the same width as your fabric. The other two pieces need to be the same length as your fabric. If you can't find any iron on seam tape, you can try using fabric glue instead. Keep in mind, however, that the glue will make your fabric stiffer.
  4. Set aside one of the "width" pieces of iron on seam tape. You will be using it later.
  5. Fold down the top 1 inch (2.54 centimeters) of each piece of fabric, and iron it. Make sure that you are folding inward, towards the wrong side. Also, make sure that you are folding one of the narrow ends, not the wide. These folded parts will make the "opening" to your blanket, so that you can later "hem" it shut.
  6. Place one of the fabric pieces down, right side up. Make sure that the folded part is facing upwards, away from you.
  7. Align the three pieces of iron on seam tape along the bottom and side edges of the fabric. Do not place any iron on seam tape on the top, folded edge. If you need to, pin the iron on seam tape in place. Stick the pins vertically into the fabric, with the ball/head part sticking out beyond the edge of the fabric. This way, you can pull them out.
  8. Place the second pieces of fabric, right side down, on top. Make sure that the folded top edge is facing away from you. It should be aligned with the folded top edge of the bottom fabric. If you need to, pin the two pieces of fabric together.
  9. Iron the edges of the fabric. Set your iron to the temperature specified by packaging from the iron on seam tape. Run it over the bottom and side edges of your blanket. If you don't have the packaging anymore, then set your iron to the appropriate setting for the fabric you are using.
  10. Remove the pins, and flip the blanket inside out. Remember the hole you left along the top edge of the fabric? Pull your blanket through that hole. The seams should now be on the inside. The folded part should also be on the inside.
  11. Cut down some quilt batting to fit, and slide it inside the blanket. If you plan on using your blanket as a duvet cover, skip this step. Consider using a quilt batting made out of polyester; it is more likely to keep its shape than a cotton or wool one.
  12. Place the last piece of iron on seam tape inside the top edge of your blanket and trim it down to fit. Make sure that you place it right between the two folded edges. Align the top edge of the seam tape with the top edge of the blanket. Pin the tape in place, if necessary.
    • If you want to completely close you blanket, trim the tape down so it fits the length of the hole.
    • If you'd like to use your blanket at a duvet cover, trim the tape down to two pieces about the width of your hand. Place the tape down to the outer sides of the hole. You will be essentially making a smaller hole.
  13. Iron the hole shut, and remove the pins. Make sure your iron it set to the right temperature, then run it over the edges of the hole. When you are done, remove the pins.


EditThings You'll Need

EditUsing Cuts and Knots

  • 2 pieces of fleece
  • Fabric scissors
  • Ruler (optional)
  • Fabric pen (optional)
  • Sewing pins (optional)

EditUsing Iron On Seam Tape

  • Two pieces of fabric
  • Fabric scissors
  • Iron on seam tape
  • Iron
  • Sewing pins (optional)


EditRelated wikiHows




source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1SRO3cO

How to Build a Mousetrap Car

A mousetrap car makes for a great science project, for a physics classroom, or as a fun weekend activity. The stored potential energy in the spring of the mousetrap's snapper arm transforms into the kinetic energy that propels the car. To create your own rodent roadster, you'll need the right materials, an understanding of a few physical principles, and a little effort.

EditSteps

EditPlanning Your Mousetrap Car

  1. Contemplate the body of your car. You're going to need to attach your mousetrap to a chassis (or body), which will form the frame of your car. For the purposes of this example, heavy cardboard will be used as the chassis, but you also might use:
    • Foam core.
    • The body of an old toy car.
    • A piece of light, durable wood, like balsa wood.
  2. Use physics to your advantage for best results. You can modify the design of your car to achieve certain goals. For example, if your physics class is having a distance race competition, you'll want to:
    • Lighten your car as much as possible. If using a solid chassis, this might include drilling holes in its frame and wheels.
    • Use wheels that are both thin and stiff.
    • Decrease air resistance by making the front of your car small and sleek.[1][2]
  3. Take into account the surface your car will run on. If your car will be traveling up a ramp or across hilly terrain, smaller wheels will be able to manage the incline better. Flat surfaces, like table and floors, can be best traversed with larger wheels.[3]
  4. Gather your mousetrap car making materials. As previously mentioned, there are many different materials you might use to make your mousetrap car, some additional option are listed in the "Tips" below. However, to make the mousetrap in this example, you will need:
    • Compass (for drawing circles)
    • Duct tape
    • Durable string
    • Elastic bands/rubber bands
    • Eye hooks (4)
    • Heavy cardboard or foam core
    • Mousetrap
    • Pliers
    • Ruler
    • Thin dowels (2)
    • Utility knife

EditMaking the Wheels and Chassis

  1. Make the wheels for your car. You'll need to create four wheels out of your heavy cardboard or foam core. To do this, take your compass or some other round object and your pencil to trace your wheels-to-be onto the cardboard. In this example, one inch (2.5 cm) diameter front wheels and two inch (5 cm) diameter rear wheels were used. After you've traced your wheels:

    • Use your utility knife to cut your wheels free.
    • Attach rubber bands around the outside edge of the wheel to give the wheels additional traction.
    • NOTE: In this example, larger back wheels and smaller forward wheels are used.[4]
  2. Remove dangerous teeth from the snap-arm of your trap.[5] Take your mousetrap and find the rod that is used to set it. There will likely be sharp teeth at the end of the rod. Carefully remove the rod, and if it has any sharp teeth, use your pliers to pull these free.

  3. Fashion your chassis from your heavy cardboard. To accommodate your mousetrap, you'll need your chassis to be about ½" (13 mm) bigger on all sides than your trap. Measure and mark this out on your cardboard, and then use your utility knife to cut out your chassis from the cardboard.[6]

  4. Attach your mousetrap to the top of your chassis. Center the mousetrap on top of the chassis and then, using duct tape or clear packaging tape, secure the mousetrap into place on all 4 sides.

    • While taping your trap into place you should avoid taping the spring. The spring should be found in the middle of the trap and snapper arm.
  5. Align and attach your eye hooks to the bottom of your chassis.[7] These eye hooks will hold the axle rods, which are the rod on which you will attach your wheels. If these hooks are out of line, your car won't travel straight, so you should:

    • Use your ruler and a pencil to mark the location of your eye hooks in the four corners of your chassis.
    • Double check the marks are evenly lined up with your ruler.
    • Screw the eye hooks into place through the cardboard chassis where you have marked.
  6. Create your axle rods.[8] Cut 2 thin skewers to a length about longer than the width of your eye hooks. These dowels/wooden skewer sticks will be the axle rods for the wheels that you made. They should be thin enough to slide through the eye hooks and spin freely.

    • Eye hooks that are too thick or skewers that are too thin will cause the axle rod to pivot in its eye hook holder, which could affect the alignment of your car.
  7. Attach your wheels to your axle rods.[9] You should be able to poke holes in the center of each wheel with the point of your compass. This should create holes that are slightly smaller than the dowel rods. Then you should:

    • Wind a rubber band onto your axle so that it is close to the body, but not touching it. This will form a buffer between your wheel and the chassis of your car, but can create friction if it comes in contact with your chassis.
    • Push your wheels onto the axle rods. If you have larger drive wheels, these should go on the rear axle and the smaller wheels on the front axle.
    • Your axle dowels should extend past your wheel about 1" (2.5 cm).
  8. Prevent your wheels from coming off or unaligned.[10] You can do this by wrapping a thin elastic band around your dowel just outside each of wheels. The elastic band will keep the wheels from falling off of the car.

EditArming the Engine

  1. Tie your string to the snap-arm. Carefully lift the snap-arm just enough to slide one end of your string beneath it. Then, wrap the string around the snap-arm and tie a tight knot to secure the string.

    • A general knot, like a square knot should work fine for attaching your string to the arm of your trap.
  2. Cut your string. Before you do, make sure that it is long enough to reach past the car's rear axle. The longer the string, the longer time it will take for the force of your trap to be released, which will create slower acceleration but greater distance traveled.[11]

  3. Prepare your transmission string. Your string is the part that will transfer force from the spring mechanism of your mousetrap to the rear wheels of your car. Pull back the snap-arm and hold it securely. While you are holding the snap-arm:

    • Use your free hand to wrap the string tightly around the car's rear axle.
    • Continue winding until no string remains.
    • The string should be tight enough to hold down the snap-arm when held.
  4. Prepare for a test drive. Place the car on the ground while still holding the snap-arm. Make sure you have a good grip on the end of the string. This should keep your snap-arm in place, and releasing should cause the arm to snap forward, propelling your car.

  5. Release your car and watch it go. Move your hands clear of your mousetrap car and let go of the string. The kinetic energy of the mousetrap spring will transfer through your string to your read axle, causing your mousetrap car to travel forward a few feet, depending on construction and the length of the string.[12]

EditVideo

EditTips

  • Be sure to clear a path in front of your mousetrap car. Obstacles may break the fragile design.
  • If you don't have thin skewers, straws are a good replacement.
  • You can build a mousetrap car with a variety of materials that you may have around the house. CDs, DVDs, and vinyl records make good wheels, for instance, and balsa or basswood make a light, but more durable, body for the car.[13]
  • You can also use the axles and wheels from a toy card to replace the cardboard and dowel. However, you will need superglue to stick the string in place.
  • To help the self propelled car roll smoothly, you can place some weight on the back or front of the car. Some recycled materials you can use include: bottle lids, cord, blu tack and eraser/rubber.

EditWarnings

  • Young children should only assemble a mousetrap car with adult assistance.
  • Never try this project with a rat trap. If the snapper arm of a rat trap releases early, the force could easily break someone's finger.

EditThings You'll Need

  • Compass (for drawing circles)
  • Duct tape
  • Durable string
  • Elastic bands/rubber bands
  • Eye hooks (4)
  • Heavy cardboard or foam core
  • Mousetrap
  • Pliers
  • Ruler
  • Thin dowels (2)
  • Utility knife

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations


Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found




source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1m6YScK

samedi 30 janvier 2016

How to Paint Doors

Painting doors yourself can help you lower costs for property maintenance while allowing you to add a personal touch to your home. Learning how to paint doors is a skill that is particularly handy for high-use doors that quickly develop signs of wear and tear. Overall, door painting is a straightforward task if you use the right equipment and are properly prepared.

EditSteps

EditRemoving Your Door for Painting

  1. Gather your door painting supplies. Obviously, you'll need a paintbrush and paint, but for best results, you'll likely also want a suitable primer. Be sure the paint and primer you buy is intended for your purposes (interior vs. exterior; acrylic vs. oil based), and, all in all, be sure you also have:
    Paint Doors Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • Clean rag
    • Drop cloth(s) (or newspaper)
    • Hammer
    • Latex paint (or other suitable paint)
    • Paintbrush
    • Paint tray (for roller)
    • Primer (if necessary)
    • Roller (low-nap)
    • Sandpaper (fine grit, 180 - 220-grit)
    • Sawhorses
    • Screwdriver
  2. Use your hammer and a screwdriver to remove the hinge pins. First, close the door so the hinge opens flat, allowing better access. Then, use a small screwdriver to force the pins out of your hinge.[1]
    Paint Doors Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    • You may only need a screwdriver to accomplish this task, but if the pin is stuck, tap the back of your screwdriver with a hammer to pop it free.
    • If you don't have a screwdriver the right size on hand, you might try using a nail pushed through the bottom of the hinge.[2]
  3. Have a friend help remove the door. The shape of your door and the material it's made from can make handling a door by yourself cumbersome, difficult, or dangerous. Especially if you are painting a metal door, which can be extremely heavy.
    Paint Doors Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Once the pins have been pulled free from all hinges, remove the door from its frame with your helper.
  4. Position the door in your work area. Make sure the area you will be painting is well ventilated, clear of obstacles, and properly covered with drop cloths or newspaper in case of drips or splatter.[3][4] Laying your door atop sawhorses with the side you intend on working face up will make the sanding and priming process easier on yourself.
    Paint Doors Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    • You can lay the door on the floor, if necessary, but this can dirty your door or accidentally cause damage.
    • To prevent your door from sticking or freshly applied paint from becoming damaged by your sawhorse, you may want to use cardboard to pad the tops of your horses.[5]
    • Sanding and painting bent over might also cause back pain.

EditSanding and Priming Your Door for Painting

  1. Remove or tape around the edges of fixtures. To ensure your doorknobs don't get primed or painted during this process, you should remove handles and any other features, like clothes hooks, from your door.[6] If you do not plan on removing these from your door, you might:
    Paint Doors Step 5 Version 2.jpg
    • Prevent hardware from being painted by taping around the edges of fixtures, or even taping the entire fixture.
  2. Sand the door lightly. Use fine grit sandpaper, between 180 and 220-grit, while stripping old, flaking paint and smoothing rough edges.[7] A power sander or coarse sandpaper might cause scoring in your door, leaving unsightly notches or lines in its surface.
    Paint Doors Step 6 Version 2.jpg
  3. Clean your door, if necessary.[8] Your door may have accumulated some dust or grit in the sanding process. Take a clean rag or paper towel and wipe your door free of any dust, dirt, or grime.
    Paint Doors Step 7 Version 2.jpg
    • Do not use water. If water soaks into the material of your door, it can have a negative effect on how the primer and paint bond to the surface.[9]
  4. Repeat sanding and cleaning on both sides. By tackling your door one side at a time, you accomplish two goals at once. Your careful attention to one side at a time will help ensure evenness and consistency for the whole door. This will help you achieve a professional looking finished product.
    Paint Doors Step 8 Version 2.jpg
  5. Prime your door. Primer helps to prepare the surface of your door for the actual coat of paint. Some surfaces, especially those that are rough or absorbent, can be difficult or expensive to paint if unprimed.[10] You'll certainly want to prime your door if:
    Paint Doors Step 9 Version 2.jpg
    • Your surface is unfinished.
    • Your door is made of bare or stained wood.
    • You want to paint the door a color lighter than its current color.[11]
  6. Allow your primer to rest. The specific brand of primer that you bought should have instructions for how long you should let your primer dry before applying paint. Follow these directions for best results, but when in doubt, allow 48 hours to pass before applying your paint.
    Paint Doors Step 10 Version 2.jpg
  7. Prime the reverse side of your door. But first, you should give it a once over to make sure that it is clean. Dirt or dust that might have been on your sawhorses could have rubbed off on your door. Using a clean rag or paper towel, wipe any dust or grit off the door before priming.
    Paint Doors Step 11 Version 2.jpg
    • Be sure not to get your door wet. Wetness on the door can prevent your primer and paint from bonding with its surface.[12]

EditPainting the Top Side

  1. Prepare to use your roller. Rollers are intended to cover a large area with paint efficiently. To cut down on the time you spend painting, put a moderate amount of paint in your tray. Then:
    Paint Doors Step 12 Version 2.jpg
    • Place your roller into the trough of your tray until it is half saturated with paint.
    • Roll it on the groves to remove excess paint.
    • Do this several times to thoroughly we the nap of your roller.
    • Apply enough paint so the roller is wet through but not dripping. Now you're ready to roll![13][14]
  2. Paint panels with your roller.[15] A small roller should help you work quickly while still providing enough maneuverability to get as much of the edges as you can. The panels are the inner shapes carved into the door, and should be focused on first.
    Paint Doors Step 13.jpg
    • Use moderate force when rolling; pressing too hard can cause paint to bead along the outer edge of your roller.
    • Dip your paintbrush into your paint can and use the tip of it to get any narrow spaces in the paneling your roller cannot reach.
    • Use your brush to smooth any heavy areas or dribbles. Do this by wiping free excess paint on the inner lip of your paint can, wiping the excess paint off the door, and wiping the excess paint back onto the inner lip.
    • Be especially vigilant for buildup in corner and edges.
  3. Use your roller to paint the crossbar.[16] Generally, you should follow the direction of the bar for the best effect. When painting a vertical bar or brace, use vertical motions with your roller. The opposite should be done for horizontal bars.
    Paint Doors Step 14.jpg
  4. Paint the border of your door.[17] Move your roller in an up and down motion to paint the left and right sides of your door. Then, using a left-to-right motion, paint the top and bottom borders.
    Paint Doors Step 15.jpg
    • When painting edges with a roller, extra paint caught in the nap of your roller sometimes squeezes out, causing a run line or thick area.
    • Keep your eyes peeled and a brush handy to correct run lines or thick areas.
  5. Add finishing touches using your paintbrush. Your paintbrush will allow you to paint difficult areas of your door with much greater detail and control. Use your brush to clean up edges where paint has collected and smooth out any unevenness in the paint.
    Paint Doors Step 16.jpg
    • If painting a wooden door, paint with the grain, which is the direction the wood appears to flow in.[18]
  6. Allow the paint to dry. The directions on your paint can should indicate how long you should let your paint dry before adding a second coat, but if you are unsure how long you should wait:
    Paint Doors Step 17.jpg
    • Wait 30 minutes for light coats and thinner paints.
    • Wait four hours for thicker coats and medium thickness paints.
    • Wait more than four hours for especially thick paints.[19]

EditPainting the Reverse Side, Second Coat, and Reinstalling

  1. Paint the reverse side of your door. Now that the topside of your door is painted and dry, you should flip the door and repeat the painting process on the other side. This time, you should be mindful of:
    Paint Doors Step 18.jpg
    • Edges, where excess paint might drip from your roller and dribble onto the other side.
    • Gaps in the wood. Some panels or wooden doors are constructed with some space or looseness where two pieces of wood form a seam. Paint these sections lightly with a paintbrush to prevent buildup on the opposite side.
  2. Apply a second layer of paint.[20] A second layer of paint can help bring out the luster in your paint, and can be especially useful at covering up any bleed through from your primer. Make sure that your paint is completely dry before applying the second coat.
    Paint Doors Step 19.jpg
  3. Allow the door to dry completely.[21] Now that both coats have been applied, you should inspect the door for any errant drips or thick spots. Use your paintbrush to smooth these out, and then consult your paint can to find the recommended wait time till dry.
    Paint Doors Step 20.jpg
    • Set an alarm so that you can check your door to see if it's done drying. If the paint is wet, damn, or feels poorly bonded, reset your timer and wait another 30 minutes. Do this until the paint feels dry.
    • Depending on the quality of your paint and door, you may want to sand very lightly with fine grit sandpaper between coats.[22]
  4. Lift the door back into its original position. You may need a helper to do this, especially if the door is heavy or cumbersome. But now that you're satisfied with the paint job and the paint has fully dried on both sides, you can reinstall your door. With your helper:
    Paint Doors Step 21.jpg
    • Slide the door into place so that the door hinge slots into the wall hinge.
    • Have your helper hold the door steady while you reinsert hinge pins.
    • Use a hammer or the handle of your screwdriver to tap stubborn pins into place.
    • Check the levelness of your door, if having difficulties. Holding the door at even a slight angle can make it impossible to reinsert hinge pins.

EditTips

  • If you are painting doors that have a large area of flat wood it is always better to paint in the same direction as the wood grain. When you paint on doors in the same direction as the wood grain, it gives your door a better finish by highlighting the grain since the texture of the paint compliments the wood grain.
  • If painting a metal or steel door, you might inquire with a local body shop on how much it would cost to have your door painted. The spray applicator used in painting cars creates an even, resilient application.
  • You might also think about cleaning your hinges with rubbing alcohol.[23]
  • Protect your hinges and other hardware, if you plan on leaving your door on its hinges, with rubber cement. Peel the cement away after you have finished painting.[24]

EditThings You'll Need

  • Clean rag
  • Drop cloth(s) (or newspaper)
  • Hammer
  • Latex paint (or other suitable paint)
  • Paintbrush
  • Paint tray (for roller)
  • Primer (if necessary)
  • Roller (low-nap)
  • Sandpaper (fine grit, 180 - 220-grit)
  • Sawhorses
  • Screwdriver

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations


Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found




source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1nvgkbM

How to Improve Kidney Function Naturally

Kidney damage can occur for a variety reasons and some of these reasons are beyond your control, such as aging and genetics. If you are concerned about developing kidney disease, then there are some things that you can do to support your kidneys and prevent the onset of kidney disease, such as losing weight, changing your diet, and by drinking kidney support teas (as long as your doctor approves). Keep in mind that you should continue to follow your doctor’s recommendations for diet, medications, and fluid intake as well.

EditSteps

EditMaking Lifestyle Changes

  1. Quit smoking. Smoking increases your risk of kidney problems and several other serious health problems as well. If you are a smoker, then quit as soon as possible to reduce your risk of developing kidney disease.[1] Ask your doctor about medications and smoking cessation programs that might help you to quit smoking.
  2. Reduce your alcohol intake. Having one or two alcoholic drinks a couple times each week is a reasonable amount, but any more than this amount may damage your kidneys. Heavy drinking will put you at an even higher risk of kidney damage. Heavy drinking is defined as more than 3 drinks a day for women (or more than 7 a week) and more than 4 drinks a day for men (or more than 14 a week).[2]
    • If you are having trouble controlling your alcohol intake, talk to your doctor for help.
  3. Lose weight. Being overweight can contribute to poor kidney function because your kidneys will have to work much harder.[3] If you are overweight, make losing weight a priority and work to maintain your weight loss. Talk to your doctor for help if you are struggling to lose weight. Some good ways to improve your chances of weight loss include:
    • keeping a food diary
    • drinking more water
    • getting more exercise
    • eating more fruits and vegetables
  4. Increase your activity level. Getting more exercise with benefit your overall health and it may also help to improve your kidney function, so try to make sure that you get some exercise every day.[4] Even 30 minutes of walking can help to improve your overall health.
    • If you have a hard time fitting in 30 minutes at a time, then try breaking your exercise sessions up over the course of the day. For example, you could do two 15 minute exercise sessions or even three ten minute sessions throughout the day.

EditChanging Your Diet

  1. Drink more water. Water is essential for preventing kidney stones, but it can also help to promote good kidney function. If you are concerned about kidney disease, then you should try to drink more water. Make it your goal to drink between six to eight 8 ounce glasses (about 1.5 to 2 liters) of water every day. If you are at risk of kidney stones, then you should drink even more water per day.[5]
    • Keep in mind that if your doctor has recommended a specific fluid intake for you, then you should stick to this recommendation.
  2. Eat a moderate amount of protein. High protein diets can “overload” the kidneys, so it is important to eat only a moderate amount of protein to keep your kidneys healthy. About 20 to 30% of your calories should come from protein.[6] For example, if you ate 2,000 calories in a day, then your calories from protein should be between 400 and 600 calories.
    • You can determine whether or not you are meeting this goal by keeping track of what you eat and paying special attention to your calories from high-protein foods. High-protein foods include things like meat, eggs, fish, and dairy products.
  3. Reduce your sodium intake. Sodium can also cause problems for your kidneys, so it is best to avoid high-sodium foods and reduce your sodium intake as much as possible. You can reduce the sodium in your diet by cooking your own food and by limiting the amount of prepared and processed foods that you eat.
    • If you do use any prepared foods, make sure that you read the labels and avoid foods with added salt.
    • Keep track of how much sodium you eat each day. You should try to stay below 2,300 mg per day if you are under 51 years old and under 1500 mg per day if you are over 51 years old.[7]
  4. Choose foods that are low in fat. Low-fat foods will help to protect your kidneys as well as your heart and arteries. Try to steer clear of high-fat foods like fried foods, baked goods, and other fat-laden dishes. Instead, choose low-fat foods such as:[8]
    • lean cuts of meat
    • low-fat cheese
    • low-fat milk
    • poultry with the skin removed
    • fruits
    • vegetables
    • beans
  5. Limit phosphorus if you have been told to do so. If you you have kidney disease that is more advanced, then you may need to limit your phosphorus intake. Make sure to limit your phosphorus intake if you have been instructed to do so. Foods that you should limit include:[9]
    • deli meats
    • meats with added phosphorus
    • dairy products
    • cola
    • processed foods
  6. Watch your potassium intake if you have been advised to do so. It is important to maintain the proper balance of potassium, so you may need to avoid or limit certain foods if you have been told to follow a lower potassium diet. Foods that tend to be high in potassium include:[10]
    • salt substitutes
    • oranges
    • bananas
    • potatoes
    • tomatoes
    • brown rice and wild rice
    • bran cereals
    • dairy products
    • whole wheat breads and pastas
    • beans
    • nuts

EditUsing Herbs

  1. Ask your doctor before you start taking any herbs. Herbs can improve the health of many different systems, but you should not use herbs if you have kidney disease. If you want to use herbs to improve your kidney function, make sure that you check with your physician first. Many herbs contain significant levels of electrolytes such as potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sodium, which can cause problems for you if you have poor kidney function. Some herbs can also interact with other medications that you are taking.[11]
  2. Consider drinking kidney support teas. If you have visited your physician and have received a “clean bill of health” regarding your kidneys, then you may be able to use some kidney support teas. To make a cup of herbal tea, use a tea bag or use one teaspoon of dried herbs for every cup of boiled water. Pour the boiled water over the herbs and allow it to steep for about five to 10 minutes. Drink two to three cups of tea per day. Some of the herbs that may be used to support kidney function include:
    • Dandelion leaf[12]
    • Parsley leaf
    • Corn silk
    • Marshmallow[13]
    • Uva Ursi (Bearberry)[14]
  3. Stop using herbs if you experience any negative side effects. Herbal teas may cause some negative side effects for some people, even though these effects are often mild. If you notice that your body is reacting to one of the herbs you are using, then stop using that herb and contact your doctor.

EditWarnings

  • Never stop taking a medication without talking to your doctor first. It is also important to let your doctor know about any natural or alternative medicines you are using to improve your kidney function.

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1P3Qenx

How to Defend Yourself in a Pet Injury or Death Lawsuit

If you're involved in an incident in which someone's pet dies or is injured, you could be facing a lawsuit from the pet owner. What pet owners are allowed to recover for the loss of their animal companions varies widely among states, but can potentially add up to a significant amount including loss of sentimental value and emotional distress. However, before ordering you to pay damages for a pet's injury or death, the court must first find you liable using basic principles of negligence or strict liability law that apply in other personal injury and property damage cases.[1]

EditSteps

EditResponding to the Complaint

  1. Read the complaint and summons. The complaint and summons you receive provide important information about the person suing you and the reasons for the lawsuit.
    • The summons tells you the name and contact information of the person suing you, as well as the court in which the lawsuit was filed. Check the location of the court – if it's far away from you, that raises questions of jurisdiction.
    • Generally, the plaintiff must file his or her lawsuit in the county where you live, although the court in the county where the incident took place also typically has jurisdiction.[2]
    • The summons also should indicate how long you have to file an answer in response to the complaint. The deadline typically is less than 30 days from the date you received the complaint. Keep in mind that if you don't file an answer by that deadline, you may lose the right to defend yourself.[3]
    • Look up the statute of limitations in your state to make sure the plaintiff still has the right to file a lawsuit. The statute of limitations provides a deadline for the filing of claims.[4] In the case of a pet injury or death, most states will use the statute of limitations that applies to property damage.[5]
  2. Look for forms or templates. Many courts have fill-in-the-blank forms or templates that you can use to format an answer to the complaint.
    • If the plaintiff filed his or her lawsuit in small claims court, there might be an answer form included with the complaint and summons.
    • You typically can find forms or templates by going to the court's website or visiting the clerk's office. If no forms are available, ask the clerk for copies of answers filed in other cases. You can use them as guides to format your answer.
    • Unless you have a fill-in-the-blank form, type your answer using a word-processing application set to print on 8.5 x 11 paper with one-inch margins on all sides. For most applications this is the default, but double-check your settings before you begin.[6]
    • Copy the top third of the first page of the complaint. This is the case's caption, and is the same on all documents filed in the case – except that you'll want to change the title of the document from "Complaint" to "Answer."[7]
  3. Address the plaintiff's allegations. You must address each individual allegation and state whether you admit or deny it.
    • Use the same paragraph numbers as the plaintiff used in the complaint, and then provide your answer. A single-word response ("admit" or "deny") is sufficient. Where necessary, refer to yourself as "Defendant" and the person who sued you as "Plaintiff" – avoid using pronouns or writing in first person.[8]
    • If you don't know anything about an allegation, you have a third response option: "Defendant lacks sufficient information to either admit or deny the allegation." The court will treat this the same as if you'd denied the allegation.[9]
    • However, if you skip an allegation and fail to respond to it, the court will treat that as though you admitted it, so be careful to address every one.[10]
    • Keep in mind that denying an allegation doesn't mean you're saying it isn't true. Rather, you're insisting that the plaintiff carry his or her burden of proof and show the court with evidence that it's true.[11]
    • After you've responded to each allegation, include any defenses that you think apply to your case. Generally, you can defend yourself by disproving elements of the plaintiff's claim or by asserting that your actions were justified in some way. Defenses that are intended to justify your behavior should appear in your answer.[12][13]
    • For example, suppose your neighbor's dog ran through your yard barking and snapped at you as though it was going to bite you. In response, you kicked the dog, causing injuries for which your neighbor has now sued you. As justification for your actions, you could argue that you acted in self defense.[14]
  4. Sign your answer. After you've finished responding to the plaintiff's allegations and offering any other defenses, you're ready to print it out.
    • Look over your answer to make sure there aren't any typos or grammatical errors and that all names are spelled correctly. Double-check the case number you copied from the complaint.
    • Sign and date your answer using blue or black ink.[15]
    • After it's signed, make at least two copies of your answer – one for your own records and one to have delivered to the plaintiff. The clerk will keep your originals for the court when you file it.[16]
  5. File your answer. To officially respond to the plaintiff's lawsuit you must take it to the clerk of the court where the plaintiff filed his or her complaint.
    • You must file your answer before the deadline listed on your summons. The clerk will date and stamp "filed" on your originals and copies and return the copies to you.
    • One set of copies must be delivered to the plaintiff. The clerk will have forms available for you to do this and will explain the procedure. Generally, you can have the forms hand-delivered by the sheriff's department or a private process serving company, or you can mail them using certified mail with returned receipt requested.[17]
    • Typically using certified mail is cheaper and easier than having your answer hand-delivered.[18]

EditDeveloping Your Defense

  1. Research your state's law. The law regarding damages for death or injury of an animal varies greatly among states.
    • Generally, courts will use the same negligence or intentional standards used in any other property damage or personal injury case to determine whether you are liable for damages.[19][20]
    • However, the amount of damages to which the plaintiff is entitled depends on your state's law. Even if you believe you will be found liable for the pet's injury or death, you may be able to lessen the amount of money you pay to the plaintiff by studying your state's law.[21]
    • In some situations the case will be incredibly straightforward. For example, if you hit the plaintiff's dog with your car, and the veterinary bills to treat the dog's injuries amounted to $5,000, the plaintiff typically is entitled to recover that $5,000 from you. If the plaintiff is claiming any additional damages, such as emotional distress, you may be able to mitigate these damages.
    • Some states allow plaintiffs to get punitive damages if they can prove that you acted with a certain degree of intent. These damages are meant to punish you for acting in an abusive or destructive way.[22]
    • However, keep in mind that if the plaintiff is asking for punitive damages, that means he or she has to prove your mental state at the time of the incident that resulted in the animal's injury or death.
  2. Consider consulting an attorney. Especially if the plaintiff is alleging animal cruelty was involved in the death or injury of his or her pet, you could possibly face criminal charges.[23]
    • Keep in mind that if the plaintiff has filed his or her lawsuit in small claims court, you typically don't need an attorney to represent you.[24]
    • It isn't typically necessary to find an attorney who specializes in animal-related cases. The injury or loss of a pet usually involves the same law for personal injury or property damages, so an attorney with experience in personal injury defense is more than capable of helping you.[25]
  3. Talk to witnesses. Anyone who saw the incident that caused the death or injury of the animal may be able to testify on your behalf.
    • Witnesses may be especially helpful if the plaintiff is trying to argue that you hurt the animal intentionally. If the incident appeared to be an accident to everyone who saw it, the plaintiff will have an extremely difficult time proving that it wasn't an accident.
    • Witnesses also may be useful if you are arguing a justification for your actions, such as self defense.[26] If you were charged by your neighbor's dog while your son watched from the porch, your son's observations of the dog's behavior can strengthen your defense.
  4. Participate in discovery. Through written discovery and depositions, you and the plaintiff can exchange information or evidence you each plan to use at trial.
    • Written discovery typically consists of written questions about the case that must be answered under oath, or requests for production, which require delivery of documents or other evidence that is relevant to the lawsuit.[27]
    • Depositions are a little more time-intensive, such they involve live interviews with parties or witnesses. The interview is conducted under oath and recorded by a court reporter, who creates a written transcript of the questions and answers.[28]
    • The plaintiff will have to produce a number of documents to prove his or her damages. For example, if the plaintiff's pet was injured, copies of veterinary bills would be necessary to prove what the plaintiff paid for the animal's medical treatment.[29]
    • If the plaintiff is seeking money for emotional distress, you should request and analyze medical or psychological records describing the plaintiff's emotional damages and any treatment for that.[30]
    • You also want to get information about the plaintiff's pet. The type and age of the animal are factors considered when the judge figures out what costs were reasonable. A working animal, such as a guard dog, would potentially be worth more than a pet that provided no benefit apart from companionship.[31]
    • Similarly, a judge likely will not find extensive veterinary costs reasonable if the animal was old and nearing the end of its life span.[32]
  5. Consider going to mediation. The mediation process can help you and the plaintiff settle the dispute without a long and stressful court process.
    • Mediation may be beneficial if you don't dispute your role in the injury or death of the plaintiff's pet and simply want to resolve the matter so you both can move on.
    • Court clerks typically have lists of mediators who are approved by the court. In some states these mediators are available for free or for a substantially reduced fee if you work through the courts to schedule your mediation session.[33]
    • The mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a conversation between you and the plaintiff to come to a mutually agreeable settlement of the claim in a non-confrontational setting.[34]

EditAppearing in Court

  1. Prepare your evidence and defense for trial. Before the trial, outline your presentation and index your evidence or witnesses for each point of your defense.
    • If you're representing yourself, you may want to visit the court before your trial is scheduled so you can observe other cases. This will help you become familiar with basic court procedures and give you a good idea of the conduct expected.[35]
    • Meet with any witnesses you plan to call before the trial date so you can go over the questions you want to ask as well as brainstorm questions that might be asked by the plaintiff.[36]
    • Organize your defense in terms of the points you want to make, taking notes for each point with the names of any witnesses you want to call or evidence you want to introduce.[37]
    • If you're bringing any documents as evidence, make at least two copies so you, the plaintiff, and the judge can look at it at the same time.[38]
  2. Go to court on your court date. You will lose the opportunity to defend yourself in the lawsuit if you don't appear in court on the date and time your trial is scheduled, and the plaintiff may win by default.
    • Plan on arriving at the courthouse at least 30 minutes early so you have time to go through security and find the right courtroom.[39][40]
    • When you enter the courtroom, take a seat in the gallery. The judge typically will be hearing several cases each day, so you should wait until your case is called before you move to the tables at the front reserved for litigants.[41]
  3. Pay attention to the plaintiff's case. Typically the plaintiff will have the opportunity to explain his or her claims to the judge first.[42]
    • Avoid interrupting the plaintiff or doing anything distracting or disruptive, such as making faces or rustling papers. Keep a pen and paper for notes and write down anything the plaintiff or the plaintiff's witnesses say that you want to mention later.
    • If the plaintiff calls witnesses, you'll have the opportunity to ask them questions yourself through cross-examination. Keep your questions relevant to the case and avoid asking something when you have no idea what the witness's response might be – the answer could hurt your case more than it helps.[43]
  4. Present your defense. Once the plaintiff is done, you have the chance to tell the judge your side of the story.[44]
    • When you're talking to the court, speak loudly and clearly so the judge can hear and understand what you're saying. If the judge asks you a question, stop what you're saying and respond to that question before continuing with your thought.[45]
    • How you defend yourself may depend to some extent on the structure of the plaintiff's presentation, but generally you want to lead with your strongest points and spend the most time on them.
    • At the same time, take care not to repeat yourself or hang too long on the same thing. Stick to the facts and make your point quickly, trust the judge to get it, and move on.[46]
  5. Wait for the judge's decision. After the trial is over, the judge may enter an order immediately or choose to take the matter under advisement.
    • Taking the case under advisement means the judge wants some time to review the evidence and information presented at trial before he or she announces a final decision on the case.
    • If you don't get a decision the day of the trial, ask the clerk how long it will be before the order is entered and whether you will be notified.[47]

EditSources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1NH0IYa

vendredi 29 janvier 2016

How to Diagnose Canine Corneal Ulcers

A corneal ulcer refers to damage to the clear membrane layer that forms the front of the eye.[1] It is important to know if your dog has a corneal ulcer because some untreated ulcers can deepen. If enough of the surface of the eye is eroded, the eye may rupture and the dog become blind in that eye. Knowing what to look for can help you diagnose a corneal ulcer in your dog and help her receive proper care.

EditSteps

EditRecognizing the Symptoms of a Corneal Ulcer

  1. Be mindful of your dog rubbing her eye. Ulcers can be difficult to see with the naked eye. Since corneal ulcers are painful, your first clue that there is a problem is that the dog’s eye will bother her because it hurts. A typical sign of a painful eye is rubbing at the eye.
    • Your dog might do this by rubbing the affected side of the face along the ground or rubbing at the eye with a paw.[2]
  2. Monitor for squinting. In addition to rubbing her eye, your dog might squint with that eye, holding it partially closed. To determine if your dog is squinting, look at the dog straight on and compare the size of both eyes. If one eye looks smaller than the other, then the dog may be squinting.
  3. Look for watery eyes. The discomfort and pain may also cause the eye to water. Sometimes the area beneath the affected eye may be wet or damp.[3]
  4. Check for red or cloudy eyes. If the dog has a corneal ulcer, the white of the eye may look reddened. Another sign is that the normally clear surface of the cornea may take on a cloudy or milky appearance.[4] This might look like a film over the eye.[5]
  5. Look for discharge. A corneal ulcer may also cause a discharge from the eye. Your dog may exhibit a bloody discharge or a pus-filled discharge.[6] This discharge may accumulate in the corner of the eye, nearest her nose.
  6. Notice eye sensitivity. Because of the pain and discomfort, your dog may display a sensitivity to light. She may shy away from bright lights, or squint when in well lit areas.[7] Your dog may also keep the affected eye closed.[8]
  7. Know that these symptoms are nonspecific. All of these signs are nonspecific. This means that reasons other than a corneal ulcer can cause similar symptoms, such as allergies, infection, trauma, or inflammation.
    • However, they are all signs of ocular discomfort so regardless of the cause, the dog needs to see a vet in order to diagnose the problem and be relieved of pain.[9]

EditDiagnosing a Corneal Ulcer

  1. Look at your dog’s eye. If you have good eyesight, then it can be useful to closely inspect the surface of the eye to look for broken or shattered reflections. If a corneal ulcer is present, the smooth surface of the cornea will have a disruption. This may be visible in good light and look like a jump, shatter, or kink in a reflection.[10]
    • If the surface of the eye looks misty, frosted, or you can see jumps in reflections, then the eye needs checking by a vet.
  2. Take your dog to the vet. If you believe your dog has eye trauma, take her to the vet. The vet will look at both eyes to determine which eye is the problem, and how inflamed or sore it is.[11]
    • The vet will also examine the eyelids and eyelashes to look for anything that might be rubbing on the surface of the cornea, such as an inturned eyelash, which could rub and cause an ulcer.
  3. Get a dye test. The definitive test for a corneal ulcer is a test which uses a special dye that changes color in the presence of damaged corneal epithelia. The dye, fluorescein, is orange but turns green and stains exposed epithelia.[12]
    • The vet will place a few drops of fluorescein into the eye, and wipe away the excess with dampened cotton wool. The eye is then observed both with and without magnification. A corneal ulcer will stain green, and will show the size, depth, and shape of the corneal ulcer.
  4. Ask for a UV light test. Sometimes pinpoint ulcers can be difficult to see, even with fluorescein. If this is the case, your vet can perform a UV light test on your dog. Your vet will switch off the lights so the room is dark, and then he’ll shining a UV light source onto the eye. This will make the fluorescein dye fluoresce, which makes it easier to see.[13]
  5. Get your dog the proper treatment. Some ulcers heal spontaneously within five to seven days. Treatment is needed to prevent secondary infections, which could slow healing, and because it's not possible to know if the ulcer will heal on its own.[14] The vet will probably give your dog eye drops containing antibiotics that should be used two to four times a day, or drops which form a protective bandage layer over the surface of the cornea.[15]
    • It is important to prevent the dog from rubbing her eye, so wearing a cone collar may be necessary. Keeping follow-up appointments is essential since the health of your dog's eye is at stake.
    • A small percentage of ulcers are resistant to treatment and may require a surgical procedure.[16]

EditUnderstanding Corneal Ulcers in Dogs

  1. Understand what a corneal ulcer is. The cornea is a clear membrane made up of layers in the eye that lets light pass unimpeded into the eye for it to be processed.[17] An ulcer is damage to the outer layer of the cornea. Untreated, this can erode deeper and if it eats through one of the inner layers, the eye may perforate.[18]
    • A shallow ulcer is the equivalent of a scrape or scuff to your skin. The deeper the ulcer, the more layers are damaged.
  2. Identify the causes. Certain conditions can cause your dog to get a corneal ulcer. Scratches and other injury to the eye is the most common reason ulcers arise. Ingrown eyelashes, dirt and other material in the eye, and chemicals can injure the eye and cause an ulcer. Smoke and infection also can cause corneal ulcers.[19]
  3. Watch active dogs closely. Since eye trauma can happen to any dog, you need to watch your dog in certain conditions. Dogs that get excitable easily can be at risk of injuring their eye. Dogs that fight, especially cats, can get an ulcer. Dogs who spend a lot of time outdoors running through underbrush, like hunting dogs, can injure their eyes.[20]
  4. Know which breeds are at a higher risk. All dogs can get a corneal ulcer. However, certain breeds with prominent eyes and flat, smooshed faces are at a higher risk because of the tendency of eyelashes to irritate their corneas. The breeds at most risk are:[21]
    • Pugs
    • Bulldog
    • Boston Terrier
    • Boxer
    • Shih Tzu
    • Pekingese

EditSources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1SOVUYw

How to Start a Volunteer Organization

Creating a volunteer organization can be a deeply fulfilling and fun process, but it requires a lot of hard work and dedication. Anyone can ...