dimanche 31 juillet 2016

How to Draw an Eye in Colored Pencil

Are you looking to draw an eye in colored pencil? Drawing eyes is fun to do whether you are just doodling or are trying to make it as realistic as possible. Once you've gotten the hang of sketching an eye with a regular pencil, it can be fun to experiment with adding color.

EditSteps

  1. Choose what brand of colored pencils you will use before you start drawing. Any brand is ok to use, but using smoother pencils will help with blending. An example of a good brand is Prismacolor Premier, depicted above.
    IMG_2963.jpg
  2. Find a reference photo. It will be much easier to pick out the correct colors if you have a photo to look at, as well as help with the shape and shading.
    IMG_2964.jpg
    • You can use a picture of your own eye or one from the internet.
  3. Draw the outline for your eye using a regular pencil. Pay attention to the size of the tear duct and waterline, as this will be important for making it look realistic. Also notice areas where there are glared or reflective spots; you should draw these areas out so you know to avoid coloring inside them. If you plan to go back over light areas afterwards with something such as a white gel pen, only draw out the largest light spots.
    IMG_2966.jpg
  4. Using a black marker or pen, color in the pupil black and any other very dark areas such as the top of the iris.
    IMG_2967.jpg
    • Do not draw the eyelashes yet, this will be done later.
  5. Pick out which colors you plan to use. Be sure to test them out before using them to make sure they match your reference photo.
    IMG_2969 1.jpg
    • Having a white pencil will help you blend over areas if you make a mistake.
    • Don't sharpen the pencils too much, as the tip is more likely to break if it is at a very sharp point.
  6. Erase the outline of the iris so it is less visible. This is so the graphite of the pencil doesn't mix with your colors.
    IMG_2970.jpg
  7. Using your lightest chosen color, fill in areas with the most light in the photo. This should not be the areas you drew out where there was glare on the eye.
    IMG_2971.jpg
  8. Continue to fill in the lightest areas, adding in some darker areas of detail. Remember it is much easier to make colors darker than lighter.
    IMG_2972.jpg
  9. Using a darker color, outline the outside of the iris.
    IMG_2973.jpg
  10. Color in the darkest areas of the iris. The top of the iris will likely be one of these spots, as well as some of the details in the iris.
    IMG_2974.jpg
  11. If any of the glare areas aren't perfectly white in your photo, color them the correct color.
    IMG_2975.jpg
  12. Begin adding in more intense color if need be, being careful not to go overboard. Adding more color later is easier than taking it out.
    IMG_2976.jpg
  13. Using a black pencil, lightly go over the areas of the iris with texture. This will help you reference where the deeper areas of the iris are later.
    IMG_2977.jpg
  14. Layer on the base color for the iris. This color will be the color that appears most prominently in the iris, such as orange, light brown, or blue. Try to avoid picking a dark color.
    IMG_2978.jpg
  15. Layer on more intense color to complement your base color. In the case of orange, it could be a brighter orange or even a red if used with caution.
    IMG_2979.jpg
  16. Add more shading around the iris, concentrating the majority at the top.
    IMG_2980.jpg
  17. Add white to the middle of the iris in a ring around the pupil. This will help it look more 3D.
    IMG_2981 (1).jpg
  18. Using a medium toned color, go over the areas of the skin that will have the most shadow.
    IMG_2982 1.jpg
  19. Continue layering colors, getting darker as you go.
    IMG_2983.jpg
  20. Add a dark color into the crease of the eye and other parts of the drawing that have the most shadow.
    IMG_2984.jpg
  21. Begin adding eyelashes. It is easiest with a black marker or pen, however you can still use a colored pencil. Make sure they curve and don't go straight up. Look at your reference photo to see how they should curve under the waterline.
    IMG_2985.jpg
  22. Finish the upper eyelashes, being sure they go in the correct direction for the angle of the picture and that they vary in length.
    IMG_2986.jpg
  23. Add the lower lash line, being careful to put the lashes on the edge of the waterline.
    IMG_2987.jpg
  24. Start to shade the inner corner of the whites of the eye. In a photo with cooler light, you will use a grey. If the photo has warmer light you will use a more pinkish tone.
    IMG_2988 1.jpg
  25. Color in the tear duct, noticing any lines and shadows in the reference photo that will help you make it look more realistic.
    IMG_2989.jpg
  26. Extend the shading of the whites of the eye. You can also add in reflections or shadows of the eyelashes.
    IMG_2990.jpg
  27. Using a dark red or purple, very lightly draw veins in the eye. Don't make them too visible or it will make the eye less realistic. Pay attention the where they are most visible in your reference photo.
    IMG_2991.jpg
  28. Add in any finishing touches such as extra white areas and your signature.
    IMG_2993.jpg

EditTips

  • If you make a mistake, layer over it with white to correct it.


source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2aDgxrz

How to Tell If Your Cat Is in Heat

An unspayed female cat will become sexually mature between the ages 5 ½ and 12 months, depending on how well-fed she is and the day-length.[1] Unlike a feral cat that must compete for food and experiences the short days of winter, a house cat has the luxury of plenty of food and artificial light. This means that while feral cats have a breeding season, with kittens born in the spring and early autumn, your house cat can go into heat at any time, and will probably do so every three to four weeks. The behaviors of a cat in heat can be alarming if you can't recognize the cause, but these instructions will allow you to determine whether your cat is in heat.

EditSteps

EditRecognizing Behavioral Signs

  1. Listen for calling. Another term for being in heat is "calling." This is because the female becomes very vocal and will frequently walk around the house wailing or otherwise vocalizing.[2] This can sound like a plaintive, distressed cry, and can be loud and persistent enough to keep you awake at night.
    Tell if Your Cat Is in Heat Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • If your cat is naturally chatty all the time, vocalization is not necessarily a sign she is in heat.
    • When a cat is "calling," her cries typically becomes much louder and more persistent, and occur alongside other behaviors noted below.
  2. Watch for restless behavior. Restless behavior and an inability to settle are characteristic of a female cat in heat.[3]
    Tell if Your Cat Is in Heat Step 2.jpg
    • This restlessness usually occurs at the same time as calling.
  3. Expect increased affection. A female cat in heat is often much more affectionate than she would typically be. If you cat is naturally stand-offish, this will usually change when she is in heat.[4]
    Tell if Your Cat Is in Heat Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • While in heat, your cat may rub around your ankles in such a persistent way that she becomes a trip hazard when you're trying to walk.
    • This behavior will also manifest in the rubbing of her cheeks and chin (where her scent glands are located) against furniture, and especially entrance and exit points such as door frames.
    • When in heat, a cat's scent changes subtly, and she enjoys spreading this around to advertise to that she'd like a mate to come visiting.[5]
  4. Pay attention to your cat's tail. A typical sign of a cat ready to mate is the tail deflection reflex. This simply means that when you rub her lower back, especially over her pelvis and tail base, the female sticks her bottom in the air and moves her tail to one side.[6]
    Tell if Your Cat Is in Heat Step 4.jpg
    • This reflex is her way of making it easier for a male cat to gain access to her vulva to mate.
  5. Look for "commando crawling." This is a behavior in which the cat flattens her front quarters to the ground while sticking her bottom in the air, and then crawling along the floor in this posture.[7]
    Tell if Your Cat Is in Heat Step 5 Version 2.jpg
  6. Watch for rolling. Some female cats in heat will roll around on the ground and wail at the same time.[8]
    Tell if Your Cat Is in Heat Step 6 Version 2.jpg
    • Understandably, if you don't know this behavior is entirely normal, it can appear alarming, and is a common cause of a panicked phone call to the on-call vet. However, this is not a sign that your cat is in pain.
  7. Watch for excessive licking. When a cat is in heat, it is typical for her vulva to become swollen. This mild swelling is uncomfortable, and will likely lead your cat to spend a lot of time washing the area.[9]
    Tell if Your Cat Is in Heat Step 7.jpg
    • This swelling is too slight for the casual observer to notice, so don't expect to see a physical difference.[10]
  8. Expect the cat to disappear. Even home-loving cats get adventurous when in heat. If a a male cat doesn't come calling, then she is likely to go wandering for a day or so to seek one out for herself.[11]
    Tell if Your Cat Is in Heat Step 8.jpg
    • If your cat is not spayed and you don't want her to get pregnant, keep her indoors during her heat and lock the cat flap so that intruders can't get in.

EditUnderstanding Your Cat's Reproductive Cycle

  1. Understand the estrus cycle. Female cats are polyestrous, which means they go into heat many times a year. [12]
    Tell if Your Cat Is in Heat Step 9.jpg
    • This is in contrast to dogs, which experience a diestrus cycle, coming into heat only twice a year. [13]
    • While in heat, your cat's womb will become swollen as its blood-supply increases in anticipation of a pregnancy. You will not be able to observe this, however, as there are no external signs of this process.[14]
  2. Understand the role of seasons. The breeding season of feral cats is between spring and late summer. This means kittens are born away from the harshest of the winter weather, when their chances of survival would be reduced.[15]
    Tell if Your Cat Is in Heat Step 10.jpg
    • Artificial light can fool a pet cat into thinking it is not winter. As such, if your cat spends much time indoors, the changing of seasons will have little or no effect on her reproductive cycle.[16]
    • Expect a cat that lives indoors to come into heat all year around.
  3. Know the time frame. The reproductive cycle of a female cat is, on average, 21 days. Of these three weeks, expect her to spend as many as seven days in heat.[17]
    Tell if Your Cat Is in Heat Step 11.jpg

EditTips

  • Keep your cat indoors and away from any potential mates when she is in heat, unless you want kittens.
  • Cats normally remain in heat for four to seven days.
  • Due to the immense issue of overpopulation resulting in countless homeless and euthanized cats each year, you should spay your cat unless you are a professional purebred cat breeder.
  • You can get your cat spayed at your local vet. Typically, it costs somewhere between $50-$150, depending on where you live and where you go to get her spayed.
  • If the female cat does not eat frequently and vomits the food out, take the cat to the vet as soon as possible.
  • You should always keep in mind that a cat has to be in a good mood before being in heat.

EditWarnings

  • It is not normal for a female cat to have a vaginal discharge during estrus, so if you notice either blood or a yellow-green discharge while your cat is in heat, contact your veterinarian immediately.[18]

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2anDduF

How to Check Your Windows Version

If you're doing some troubleshooting for your computer, you may need to find what version and build of Windows you are running. This can help others narrow down your problems based on what version you are using. Finding your Windows version, and whether you have a 32-bit operating system or a 64-bit operating system, only takes a minute.

EditSteps

EditFinding Your Windows Version

  1. Open the Run box. You can access this from the Start menu, or by pressing .
    Check Your Windows Version Step 1 Version 5.jpg
  2. Open "About Windows". Type and press .
    Check Your Windows Version Step 2 Version 5.jpg
  3. Check your version. Your Windows release will be displayed at the top ("Windows 7", "Windows 8", etc.). In the text beneath the logo will list your version and build number (e.g. "Version 6.3 (Build 9600)").[1]
    Check Your Windows Version Step 3 Version 5.jpg

EditDetermining if Windows is 32-Bits or 64-Bits

  1. Open "System Properties". You can access the System Properties by pressing , or by right-clicking on Computer/My Computer and selecting Properties.
    Check Your Windows Version Step 4 Version 5.jpg
  2. Check your Windows information. At the top of the window you will see your Windows edition. In the "System" section, you can see whether Windows is 32-bits or 64-bits by looking at the "System type:" entry.
    Check Your Windows Version Step 5 Version 5.jpg


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EditSources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/17En09m

samedi 30 juillet 2016

How to Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple

Because pineapple does not continue to ripen after being harvested, it’s important to know how to choose a ripe one. Once you’ve mastered identifying the signs of ripeness and avoiding deterioration, you may want to store your pineapple to enjoy later. There are a number of methods to store your fruit depending on how long you want it to last.

EditSteps

EditSelecting a Pineapple

  1. Know what you’re looking for. When choosing a pineapple, there are two qualifications that you should keep in mind: ripeness and deterioration. Ripeness is the measure of whether or not the fruit is ready to eat, while deterioration measures if the fruit has begun to break down.[1]
    Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple Step 1 Version 4.jpg
    • Ripeness is indicated by the yellow gold color present on the skin of the pineapple.
    • Deterioration is indicated by a wrinkling of the skin.
  2. Evaluate the coloring of the pineapple skin. The skin should be vibrant greens and yellows with no white or browned areas. Depending on the variety of the pineapple, the coloring should be more yellow than green.[2]
    Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple Step 2 Version 4.jpg
    • The yellow-gold color should be present at least around the eyes of the fruit as well as around the base.
    • While a pineapple can feasibly be ripe while fully green, there is very little way to know for sure that it is, so purchasing a fully green pineapple is risky.
    • The higher up the pineapple the yellow-gold reaches, the more evenly flavored the pineapple.
  3. Feel the pineapple to see if it is ripe. If the coloring of the pineapple fits the ideal description, that doesn’t guarantee that it’s ripe. In order to be certain, you should feel the consistency and yield of the skin.[3]
    Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple Step 3 Version 4.jpg
    • Gently squeeze the fruit. It should be firm but the skin should give slightly.
    • There should be no indented or squishy spots. A good pineapple that is ripe and juicy will feel heavy.
  4. Check the size of the eyes from the top to the bottom. They should all be similar in size and color and be free from mold. The eyes can be some of the stronger indicators as to whether or not the pineapple is ripe and sweet.[4]
    Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple Step 4 Version 4.jpg
    • Choose the pineapple with the largest eyes. The size of the eyes indicates how long the pineapple was left to ripen on the branch.
    • Look for a pineapple with flat eyes. Flat eyes can indicate the sweetness of the fruit.
  5. Smell and listen to your pineapple. While the odor and sound of a pineapple are not necessarily strong indicators of its ripeness alone, in the presence of other indicators they can help you choose the best one.
    Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple Step 5 Version 2.jpg
    • The smell of the pineapple should be sweet, but if it is too sweet and almost has a hint of alcohol, then it is beyond it’s freshness.
    • A ripe fruit will have a dull, solid sound. Unripe fruits will sound hallow.
  6. Look out for deterioration. Although you are looking for a fruit that has had enough time to fully ripen, you also need to look out for one that has spent too much time since being pulled from the branch. Once a pineapple begins to show signs of deterioration, it is considered over-ripe and is no longer a good choice.[5]
    Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple Step 6 Version 2.jpg
    • A deteriorating pineapple will exhibit wrinkled skin and feel soft to the touch.
    • Look for leaks or cracks in the fruit, both are strong signs of deterioration.
    • The leaves of a deteriorating pineapple will appear brown and stiff.

EditStoring a Pineapple for a Short Time

  1. Store the pineapple on your counter. Pineapples do not need to be refrigerated for the first few days you have them at home. In fact, if you intend to eat your pineapple within a day or two of purchasing it, feel free to just store it on your counter.
    Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple Step 7.jpg
    • Keep an eye on your pineapple to make sure it doesn’t begin to exhibit signs of deterioration as it sits.
    • It is recommended that you purchase your pineapple on the same day you intend to eat it so as to avoid deterioration.
  2. Refrigerate your pineapple whole. If you would like to prolong the life of your pineapple for a few more days, you can keep it in your refrigerator. Remember, pineapples do not have a significant shelf life even when refrigerated so it is recommended that you eat your pineapple within 3-5 days even when using this method.[6]
    Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple Step 8.jpg
    • Wrap the pineapple in plastic before placing it in the refrigerator.
    • Check the pineapple each day for signs of deterioration.
  3. Refrigerate sliced pineapple. You can prolong the life of your pineapple by another day or two beyond simply refrigerating it by slicing it first. It can be more difficult to know if your pineapple has begun to deteriorate once it is sliced, so it is recommended that you eat the pineapple within 6 days of purchase even using this method.[7]
    Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple Step 9.jpg
    • Use a serrated knife to cut off the top of the pineapple off, then slice off each of the sides.
    • Once you have the outer portion of the pineapple removed, slice it to a width of your liking, then use a cookie cutter or knife to remove the core from the center of the slices.
    • Store your pineapple slices in an airtight container like Tupperware to maximize its lifespan.

EditStoring a Pineapple for Extended Periods of Time

  1. Freeze fresh pineapple for long-term storage. You can prolong the life of your pineapple for as much as 12 months by freezing it. You will need to remove the skin and the core of the pineapple first.[8]
    Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple Step 10.jpg
    • Once the skin and core are removed from the pineapple, store it in an airtight container like Tupperware.
    • Leave a small amount of air in the container with the pineapple.
  2. Use a dehydrator to dry pineapple for storage. If you happen to have a dehydrator, you can prepare and store your pineapple nearly indefinitely! Dehydrating removes the moisture from the pineapple and makes it a bit more like pineapple “chips” but with all the same nutritional value. [9]
    Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple Step 11.jpg
    • Use a sharp knife to peel, core and slice your pineapple. Make sure your slices are consistently about 1/2 inch (1.25 cm) thick.
    • Place in your dehydrator according to the manufacturer's recommendation or at 130 degrees Fahrenheit (54 degrees Celsius) until the fruit reaches a leathery state but is not sticky.
    • It may take 12-18 hours to be fully dehydrated.
  3. Can or jar your pineapple. The last possible method to storing your pineapple for an extended period of time is canning. Canning or jarring your pineapple can prolong its life for a year or more, but it is not recommended to store it for longer than a year to be safe.[10]
    Buy and Store Fresh Pineapple Step 12.jpg
    • Once again, slice and core your pineapple by cutting off the top and skins. This time, cutting the pineapple into chunks instead of slices may make it easier to can.
    • You will need to boil your pineapple in a “packing” solution to occupy the additional space in the can and keep it moisturized. You can use apple juice, white grape juice or light to medium “canning syrup” you can buy at some specialty grocery stores.[11]
    • After boiling the pineapple in the packing solution, fill your jars, leaving an inch or so of open space at the top.
    • Place the lids on the jars finger tight, then place it (or however many you have) in a pot with water approximately 1-2 inches taller than the top of the jar or can.
    • Boil the jars for 25 minutes for a pint jar, 30 minutes for quarts. After removing them, the air will have been evacuated and the pineapple will be good to store.


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2aHfGUN

How to Deal with a Narcissistic Friend

Dealing with a friend who's a narcissist can be a difficult, frustrating situation. There are two types of narcissists, those who are ma...