mercredi 31 août 2016

How to Get Perfect Eyebrows

If you want perfect eyebrows, you have a few options: you can go to a salon and get them waxed or threaded, or you could can create the perfect shape yourself. First figure out what shape is best for your face, then decide how thick or thin to go and shape your brows using tweezers and an eyebrow pencil. With great eyebrows, you can be one step closer to that movie star look. Grab those tweezers!


EditFiguring Out Your Perfect Brow Shape

  1. Find the place where your brows should begin. Finding just the right spot for your inner brows to start is key to creating perfect brows, since starting too far in could throw off the balance of your face.[1] To figure out where your inner brows should start, use the following technique:

    • Take a pencil or another long, thin instrument. Line it up from the corner of your eye to the edge of your nose.
    • The place where the instrument overlaps your brow is where it should begin. Mark the spot by making a dot there with an eyeliner pencil. Repeat on the other side.
  2. Find the spot where your eyebrow arch should peak. Most eyebrows naturally arch around the eye, and finding the place where the arch peaks is essential to making them look perfect. Use the same long, thin instrument to figure out where your arch should peak by following this technique:

    • Look straight ahead in the mirror.
    • Line up the instrument with the outer edge of your nostril and the outer edge of your iris.
    • The place where the instrument crosses your brow is where your arch should peak. Mark it with a dot using an eyeliner pencil. Repeat on the other side.
  3. Determine where your brow should end. Finding the right place for brow to end is as important as where it begins. You want your brows to frame your eyes gracefully. Find the right spot by lining up the long, thin instrument in this way:

    • Line up the instrument from the edge of your nostril to the outer corner of your eye.
    • The place where the instrument crosses your outer brow is the place where it should end. Mark the spot with a dot using an eyeliner pencil.
  4. Determine how thick you want your brows to be.[2] Perfect eyebrows for someone else may not be perfect eyebrows for you. The thickness of your eyebrows is a personal decision that should be influenced by the following factors:

    • The size of your eyes. If your eyes are on the bigger side, thicker brows can help balance them out. If they're small, thick brows might overshadow them, so you'll want to choose a brow thickness that's slightly thinner.
    • The size of your lips. A good general rule of thumb is that your eyebrows should be about the same thickness as your upper lip. This can help 'tie the look together'. If you look at pictures of models in magazines than you'll notice this is the case with many of them.
    • The distance between your brows and your eyes. If you have a low brow bone that is set close to your eyes, you'll want to pull up your brows a bit to lighten the area. If you have a high brow line spaced well above your eyes, heavier brows might provide a more balanced look.
    • Your style preferences. Sometimes thick, bushy eyebrows are in style, and sometimes more people prefer them to be thin and well-tailored. Think about what style you're going for before you dive into plucking your brows.

EditPlucking and Filling Your Brows

  1. Brush your brow hairs up. Take a small eyebrow brush or a fine-toothed comb and brush the hairs up in the direction they grow. This will make it easier to figure out which hairs need to be plucked.

  2. Tweeze the hairs outside the dots you drew. Now it's time to start shaping your brows according to the plans you laid out. Make sure you're in a well-lit area so that you don't accidentally tweeze too much. Grasp each hair firmly with the tweezers and pluck one at a time in the direction they grow.

    • Start with the inner brow, closest to your nose. Use the tweezers to pluck the hairs that are closer to your nose than the dot.
    • Tweeze the hairs that fall outside the dot on your outer brow.
    • Tweeze hairs above and below the arch area. Look at the place where your arch should peak and carefully tweeze around it to make the peak slightly more prominent.
    • Tweeze the bottom of the brow. Pluck stray hairs under your brow and shape the bottom. If you decided you want thick brows, stop after plucking the hairs that grow outside the brow. If you want thinner brows, carefully pluck the underside of the brow to lighten it up.
  3. Tweeze the other brow. Now that you've shaped the first one, take extra care to make sure the other brow matches it in shape and size. Use the same method to tweeze the hairs on the inside of the inner brow dot, the outside of the outer brow dot, around the arch peak, and on the underside of the brow. Examine both brows in the mirror to make sure they are even.

  4. Don't overpluck. Avoid the temptation to keep plucking hairs in order to create two perfectly even brows. You risk plucking away too much hair. Eyebrow hair can take 6 - 8 weeks to grow back, and sometimes it's gone for good. Take care of the hair you have.

EditStyling Your Brows

  1. Fill in the brows. Take an eyebrow pencil in a shade close to that of your brows and make light strokes in the direction that your hair grows to help fill out your look. Eyebrow hair doesn't usually grow completely evenly, so filling in the gaps is a necessity for creating the perfect brows.

    • Don't create an arch where there isn't one, or try to lengthen your brows with a pencil. It will be too obvious that you drew extra parts.
    • For a heavier look, choose an eyebrow pencil that's a shade or two darker than your natural brow shade.
  2. Use a brow comb. Gently comb them into shape so that no hairs are poking up in the wrong direction. If you filled in your brows with pencil, take care not to smudge it when you comb your brows.

  3. Apply brow gel. This helps your brows stay in place all day, and prevents them from getting messy under windy conditions. Apply a dab to the inner part of your brow and either smooth it to the outer part of your brow with the tip of your finger or use the brow brush to comb it in.

    • If you don't have brow gel, you can use hairspray instead. Spray your finger with hair spray and wipe it across your brow.
    • You can also use a dab of petroleum jelly in place of brow gel.[3]



  • To minimize the pain of plucking, do it right after you get out of the shower.
  • To minimize the pain, wash your face with warm water. This will open up your eyebrow-pores and make the pain bearable.
  • Pluck in the evening so you skin has time for the redness to go away.
  • Never shave them as you will get dry skin and they will become itchy.

EditThings You'll Need

  • Eyeliner
  • Long, thin pencil or other instrument
  • Eyebrow pencil
  • Eyebrow comb
  • Tweezers
  • Mirror
  • Eyebrow gel

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source How to of the Day

How to Figure Out Your Yearly Salary

If you are paid by the hour as an employee or contract worker, calculating your hourly income as an annual salary can be useful. You'll often need to provide your annual salary on applications. Or, you may want to compare salaries between new job opportunities. Either way, you can figure out your yearly salary using simple formulas and basic math.


EditIf You Work the Same Number of Hours Each Week

  1. Find out your hourly wage. You probably already know how much you make per hour. For example, you might make $15/hour. But if you don't, you'll need to find this information.
    Figure Out Your Yearly Salary Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • Your hourly wage should be listed on your pay stub, if your employer provided one.[1]
    • If you aren't sure, you can also ask a manager, or someone in the personnel/human resources department.
  2. Calculate the total hours you work each year. Multiply the number of hours you work each week by 52, the number of weeks in a year.[2]
    Figure Out Your Yearly Salary Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    • For instance, if you work 40 hours a week, your math would look like this: 40 hours * 52 weeks = 2080 hours a year.
  3. Multiply your hourly wage by the number of hours you work each year. Now, all you have to do is multiply your hours by your wage.[3]
    Figure Out Your Yearly Salary Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Following the example above, $15 * 2080 = $31,200. This is your annual salary.

EditIf You Work a Different Number of Hours Each Week

  1. Keep track of your hours. Write down the number of hours you work each day. At the end of the week, calculate how many hours total you worked.
    Figure Out Your Yearly Salary Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    • You can use a variety of electronic applications, online software, or even just write it in a notebook.[4]
    • If your hours vary from week to week, you will want to keep track of your hours for a longer period of time. Then, you can average the numbers.
    • For example, if you work 10 hours one week, 25 the next, 15 the following, and 30 the last week, you end up with 80 hours for the month. Divide this by 4 weeks and you get an average 20 hours a week.[5]
    • If your hours vary a great deal between different times of the year, you may need to track an even longer period. For example, imagine you work 50 hours a week for a couple of weeks around the holidays, but only 20 hours a week during the summer. This is going to affect your calculations a lot. In the case of large variations, you might even have to track your hours over a whole year to get an accurate figure.
  2. Determine how many overtime hours you worked. If you work more than 40 hours in a 7-day period, your employer must pay you at one and a half times your regular wage. In other words, you should receive a half-hour credit for every hour you worked over 40 hours in a week.[6]
    Figure Out Your Yearly Salary Step 5.jpg
    • The formula for this calculation is: Total weekly payroll hours = Actual hrs worked + [.5 * (actual hrs worked - 40)]
    • For example, say you work 45 hours one week. This is 5 hours of overtime. Multiply 5 by .5. This gives 2.5 extra hours.. Add this to the 45 regular hours. For this calculation, your hours for the week are then 47.5, rather than 45.
  3. Calculate how many hours you work in a year. To figure this out, multiply the average weekly payroll hours by 52.[7] For example, if you usually work about 45 hours a week, multiply 47.5 hours (adjusted for overtime) by 52. This equals 2,470 hours a year.
    Figure Out Your Yearly Salary Step 6.jpg
    • If you track your hours for a whole year, you can simply add them up, rather than multiplying a weekly average by the number of weeks worked.
  4. Calculate your salary. Multiply the number of hours by your hourly wage.
    Figure Out Your Yearly Salary Step 7.jpg
    • For example, if you make $15/hour multiply 2,470 by $15. This equals an annual salary of $37,050.

EditAdditional Considerations

  1. Include bonuses. Add any bonuses, commissions or incentive payments you got to the annual salary figure. Many hourly positions have incentive arrangements that add to the hourly wage. For example, you might receive bonuses based on productivity, leadership, or tenure (length of time at the job).[8]
    Figure Out Your Yearly Salary Step 8.jpg
    • Some employers provide a holiday bonus to all employees each year. Sticking with the example in Part 1, imagine you get $200 bonus every year. Your math would look like this: $31,200 + $200 = $31,400.
    • If you receive a commission or other variable bonuses, you'll need to keep track of them over the course of a year to include them here. For example, imagine you get a $50 bonus every time you reach a certain level of sales. If you get this bonus 12 times over the course of a year, you multiply $50 time 12, getting $600. Sticking with the above example, you would then add $31,400 + $600 to get $32,000.
  2. Deduct benefits and payments. If you're paying into your health care or a 401(k), you may want to subtract these costs to get a measure of your "take-home pay."
    Figure Out Your Yearly Salary Step 9.jpg
    • These amounts are still technically a part of your income. But, they represent money that does not increase your purchasing power.
    • Look at your pay stub to find out how much is deducted for these expenses each month. To get an annual figure, multiply the monthly payment by 12. Subtract it from your annual income.[9]
    • For example, if health care costs you $150 a month and you're putting $200 into a 401(k), that adds up to $350. $350 x 12 = $4200. Subtract this from your annual salary.
  3. Determine how much you pay in taxes. This will let you figure out your salary before or after taxes.
    Figure Out Your Yearly Salary Step 10.jpg
    • You'll need to look up where you fall in the federal tax bracket to determine how much you'll pay in federal income tax. Your annual income will determine how much you are taxed. There are online tax bracket calculators that can help you figure this out if you don't know which bracket you are in.[10]
    • Your state tax will depend on where you live. Some states have no income tax. For those that do, it will probably be about 5-6%. You can find your state's income tax rate online.[11]
    • Subtract your income tax percentage from 100%. For example, if you're in the 20% bracket, you'd end up with 80%.
    • Change this percentage to a decimal by moving the decimal point two places to the left. For example, if you keep 80% of your income, the decimal equivalent would be .80 (or just .8).
    • Multiply your monthly income by the decimal to get your pay after taxes. You can calculate either your monthly or annual pay in this way.[12]
    • If you make $2800 a month and fall in the 30% tax bracket, your decimal equivalent is .7. Multiply $2800 x 0.7 to get $1960 a month. This is the amount you receive after taxes are taken out.[13]


  • According to the Fair Labor and Standards Act, an hourly worker must be paid for waiting time. This is time in which the employer requires an employee to be present, even if there is no work to do. You should also receive pay for on-call time, in which you must stay on the premises to potentially work. You are also entitled to pay for rest and meal periods. Rest periods are usually less than 20 minutes; you should receive pay for meal periods if you have to be available to work.[14]
  • You can easily reverse the calculations, using annual income to find the equivalent hourly wage. Divide the total annual compensation by your hours worked. If you work full time, this will be 2080 hours (52 weeks of 40 hour work weeks). For example, someone with an annual salary of $38,500 would make $18.51 when the salary is divided by 2080.
  • If you get paid vacation or sick time and didn't work for a few weeks, don't adjust the number of weeks you were paid for (52). If you took a few weeks of unpaid vacation time, subtract the number of weeks from 52.[15]

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source How to of the Day

How to Treat Bursitis

Bursitis is a medical condition that can lead to severe pain, swelling, or stiffness in the areas surrounding your joints. Therefore, bursitis often affects areas of your body such as your knees, shoulders, elbows, big toes, heels, and hips. How to treat bursitis depends on the severity, causes, and symptoms, but you have a number of options available to you, both at home and at your doctor's.


EditUnderstanding Bursitis

  1. Understand what causes bursitis. Bursitis is when a bursa sac becomes enlarged and inflamed. A bursa is a small, fluid-filled sac that provides cushioning for your body near your joints.[1] That is, it provides padding as your bones, skin, and tissues connect and move with your joints.[2]
    Treat Bursitis Step 1 Version 2.jpg
  2. Look for swelling. Symptoms of bursitis include swelling at the site, as well as pain. The area may also be red or have stiffness. If you have these symptoms, you should see your doctor.[3]
    Treat Bursitis Step 2 Version 2.jpg
  3. Know how it's diagnosed. Your doctor will use questions and a physical exam to diagnose the condition. She may also order an MRI or an X-ray. [4]
    Treat Bursitis Step 3 Version 2.jpg
  4. Understand what causes bursitis. Bursitis is most often caused by repeated motions in the same joint or by lightly hitting the same area over time. For instance, activities such as gardening, painting, playing tennis, or playing golf can all lead to bursitis if you are not careful.[5] Other causes of bursitis are infection, trauma or injury, arthritis, or gout.
    Treat Bursitis Step 4 Version 2.jpg

EditTreating Bursitis with Remedies at Home

  1. Use the PRICEM treatment. "PRICEM" stands for "protect," "rest," "ice," "compress," "elevate," and "medicate."[6]
    Treat Bursitis Step 5 Version 2.jpg
    • Provide protection by padding the joint, especially if it's in the lower half of your body. For instance, wear knee pads if your bursitis is in your knees, and you need to continue kneeling.[7]
    • Give your joint as much of a break as possible by staying off of it. For instance, try different exercises that don't hurt the area near the joint that is inflamed.[8]
    • Use ice packs wrapped in a cloth. You can also use frozen vegetables such as peas. Ice the area for 20 minutes at a time, and you can use this method up to 4 times a day.[9]
    • You can wrap the joint in an elastic bandage to provide support. Also, be sure to raise the area above your heart as often as possible. Otherwise, blood and fluid may collect in the area.[10]
    • Use anti-inflammatory pain pills, such as ibuprofen, which can help decrease the swelling and pain.[11]
  2. Use warm compresses for pain that last longer than 2 days. Apply heat to the area for up to 20 minutes four times a day.[12]
    Treat Bursitis Step 6 Version 2.jpg
    • You can use a hot pad or a hot water bottle. If you don't have either of those, dampen a washcloth, and place it in the microwave. Heat for 30 seconds or so to warm it, making sure it's not too hot.[13]
  3. Try a cane, crutches wheelchair or any other type of walker for bursitis in your legs. Though you may not like using a cane or walker, you may need one while you recover. These devices help take some of the weight off the bursa area, allowing it to heal faster, as well as reducing your pain.[14]
    Treat Bursitis Step 7.jpg
  4. Try a splint or brace. Splints and braces provide support to injured areas. In the case of bursitis, they can provide some much-needed relief for your joint areas, leading to quicker healing.[15]
    Treat Bursitis Step 8.jpg
    • However, only use braces or splints for the initial burst of pain. If you use them too long, it decreases strength in that joint. Talk to your doctor about how long you should wear one.[16]

EditTreating Bursitis with Professional Help

  1. Ask your doctor about corticosteroid injections. This type of injection is one of the main medical treatments for bursitis. Essentially, your doctor will use a needle to inject cortisone into the joint.[17]
    Treat Bursitis Step 9.jpg
    • If you're worried about the pain, most doctors use an anesthetic first to numb the area. He or she may also use an ultrasound to help guide the needle to the right place.[18]
    • These injections should help both the inflammation and the pain, though it may become worse before it gets better.[19]
  2. Take antibiotics. Sometimes, the inflammation is caused by an infection. A round of antibiotics can help your body fight off the infection, reducing the inflammation and the bursitis.[20] If the bursa is infected, your doctor may drain the infected fluid first with a needle.
    Treat Bursitis Step 10.jpg
  3. Pursue physical therapy. Physical therapy may be a good option for you, especially if you have frequent flare-ups. A physical therapist can show you how to best exercise to improve your range of motion and pain level, as well as how to help prevent the problem in the future.[21]
    Treat Bursitis Step 11.jpg
  4. Try swimming, or get in a hot tub. Water can help you move the joint easier without as much pain, so that you can slowly regain motion.[22] However, be gentle in your swimming. Swimming can lead to bursitis in the shoulder, so keep the intensity down. Focus on recovering motion and lessening pain not on an intense workout.
    Treat Bursitis Step 12.jpg
    • Another option is water physical therapy, which allows you to improve your pain under the direction of a professional.[23]
  5. Use surgery as a last option. A surgeon can surgically remove the bursa if it becomes a severe problem, but this treatment is usually the last one a doctor will recommend.[24]
    Treat Bursitis Step 13.jpg

EditPreventing Bursitis

  1. Avoid repeated motions in the same area. That is, bursitis is often caused by you using the same joint to do the same movement over and over, such as doing too many push-ups or even something as small as typing for too long.[25]
    Treat Bursitis Step 14.jpg
  2. Take breaks. If you do have to do an action for a long period of time, be sure to rest from time to time. For instance, if you have been writing or typing for a long period of time, take a few minutes to stretch your hands and arms.[26]
    Treat Bursitis Step 15.jpg
  3. Always warm up. A physical therapist can help you with exercises and stretches for your specific needs. Before you exercise, take the time to do some stretches and some light movements to warm up your body.[27]
    Treat Bursitis Step 16.jpg
    • For instance, start with something simple like doing jumping jacks[28] or jogging in place.[29]
    • You can also try stretches such as high knee pulls, where you lift your arms up in the air. Pull them back down as you pull one knee up. Alternate knees.[30]
    • Another easy warm up is high kicks, which is exactly how it sounds; kick one leg high in the air in front of you. Switch back and forth between legs.[31]
  4. Build up your tolerance. When you first start a new exercise or weight-lifting routine, take time to build up stamina. You don't want to jump into doing a hundred repetitions your first time out. Start small, and build up each day.[32]
    Treat Bursitis Step 17.jpg
    • For instance, the first day you do push-ups, maybe you want to just try doing ten or so. The next day, add one more. Keeping adding one everyday until you reach a level you are comfortable with.
  5. Stop if you have sharp pain. You should expect some strain on your muscles if you're lifting weights or starting a new exercise. However, you should stop if you feel any sharp or severe pain, which can indicate a problem.[33]
    Treat Bursitis Step 18.jpg
  6. Practice good posture. Sit and stand up straight when you can. Pull your shoulders back. If you notice yourself slouching, correct your posture. Bad posture can lead to bursitis, especially in your shoulders.[34]
    Treat Bursitis Step 19.jpg
    • When you are standing, place your feet evenly, about shoulder-width apart. Keep your shoulders back. Don't tense up. Keep your gut in. Your arms should hang freely.[35]
    • When you are sitting, your knees should be in line with your hips. Keep your feet flat. Don't tense up your shoulders, but do roll them back. Make sure your back is supported by the chair. If it isn't, you may need to add a small pillow near the base of your back. Imagine a string down your spine, pulling your head up as you sit.[36]
  7. Correct leg length differences. If one of your legs is longer than the other, that can lead to bursitis in one of your joints.[37] Use a shoe lift for the shorter leg to correct the problem.[38]
    Treat Bursitis Step 20.jpg
    • An orthopedic doctor can help you get the right type of lift. Essentially, a heel or shoe lift is incorporated into the bottom of the shoe. It lengthens that leg a bit, since it provides added height.[39]
  8. Use padding whenever possible. That is, when you're sitting, make sure you have a cushion under you. When you're kneeling, have a knee pad under you. Pick good shoes that offer proper support and padding, such as high quality walking sneakers.[40]
    Treat Bursitis Step 21.jpg


  • See your doctor immediately if you have a fever, or if the bursa area becomes more red, warm, swollen or painful than before. These are signs of a possible infection.


EditSources and Citations

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source How to of the Day

mardi 30 août 2016

How to Do Rhythmic Gymnastics

Rhythmic gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics in which athletes toss, throw and catch five different apparatuses. Renowned for their flexibility, rhythmic gymnastics also requires upper and lower body strength as well as grace and coordination. Less popular than artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics can be rewarding whether you compete or practice recreationally.


EditBecoming Familiar with Rhythmic Gymnastics

  1. Become familiar with the apparatus. Rhythmic gymnasts manipulate five different apparatus: rope, hoop, ball, clubs, ribbon, as well as freehand (no apparatus).
    • The ball is usually made of either rubber or synthetic rubber. Its size is from a diameter of 18 cm (7.25 inches) to 20 cm (8 inches) and must weigh above 400 g (.9 lbs). Like the other apparatus, it can be of any color.[1] A ball routine will include bouncing, throwing or rolling. The ball is sometimes held in the back while a walkover is done. Gymnasts usually start ball as their first apparatus.
    • The rope is generally made of hemp or a similar material. The length varies on the height of the gymnast. One or two knots are tied on each end to aid in keeping hold. The rope must be either all or partially colored. Leaps, skipping, swings throws circles, rotations and figures of eight are included in a rope routine.[2]
    • The hoop may be made of wood or plastics. The size of the hoop is from 51 cm (20 inches) to 90 cm (35.5 inches) in diameter, and must weigh at least 300 g (.66 lbs). The hoop may be of a natural color or may be colored by one or several colors, and may have adhesive tape of any color. A hoop routine includes hoop rotation, rolling, swings, circles, throws and passes of the body through and over the hoop.[3]
    • The clubs may be made of wood or synthetic material, similar to the hoop. The length of each club is from 40 cm (15.75 inches) to 50 cm (19.66 inches). Two clubs are used. Each club must weigh above 150 g (.33 lbs) and are typically weighted on each end. The shape is similar to a bottle. The neck and head may be covered with adhesive tape.[4]
    • The ribbon itself may be satin or another non starched material. It may be any color. It must weigh at least 35 g (1.25 oz). The width is 4 cm (1.5 inch) to 6 cm (2.4 inches) The length from one end to the other must be at least 6 m (20 feet). The stick may be made of bamboo, wood, plastic or fiberglass[5]
  2. Become familiar with the scoring. The following elements are essential to understanding for scoring:
    • The victor is the participant who ends with the most points. Points are determined by a panel of judges, who judge the gymnasts leaps, pirouettes, balances, apparatus handling and execution. Depending on the level, the routine must contain a number of these elements as well as flexibility movements. A high degree of athletic skills are needed for these movements.
    • The final score is based on a 30 point scale that requires three panels of judges. Each panel delivers scores for artistic expression, difficulty and execution.[6]
    • Dropping an apparatus is the equivalent of falling off an apparatus in artistic gymnastics.
    • If an apparatus breaks during the exercise or gets caught in the ceiling, the gymnast(s) will not be allowed to start over. [7]
    • The sport is governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG), or International Federation of Gymnastics (IFG), using the Code of Points. This organization regulates all competition.
    • The largest events are the Olympics, World Championships and European Championships.
  3. Become familiar with the attire. The following aspects detail the expected clothing and styling:[8]
    • Rhythmic gymnasts wear a variant of the artistic leotard. A rhythmic leotard has a short skirt as well as crystals and other decoration. It is also permitted to wear a unitard. The base color of a leotard may not be nude.
    • Rhythmic gymnasts wear half shoes to aid in turning or completely barefoot.
    • No jewelry is allowed.
    • Hairstyle must be neat.
  4. Become familiar with the history of rhythmic gymnastics. Rhythmic gymnastics has its origins to the early days of ballet. It began to take modern shape at the Swedish School of Rhythmic Gymnastics in the 1900s. When apparatus were incorporated in Germany in 1929, this became 'Modern Gymnastics." The Soviets made the sport competitive. It has been called "Modern Gymnastics," then "Rhythmic Sportive Gymnastics," and now it is known as "Rhythmic Gymnastics". The FIG officially recognized it as a sport in 1961.[9]
    Evolution of RG.png
    • Rhythmic gymnastics was originally judged on a 10.0 scale.
  5. Become familiar with the competition. Russia is the dominant force in rhythmic gymnastics.[10] Bulgaria, Ukraine, Belarus, Azerbaijan and Spain are other dominant teams. Other Asian countries such as China also excel at rhythmic gymnastics. Many gymnasts train from very early ages.

EditStarting Rhythmic Gymnastics

  1. Find a club. In the US, as rhythmic gymnastics is not as popular, it may be difficult to find a club. You can find a list of all the US clubs here. When looking for a club, make sure it has adequate room, high ceilings, stall bars, multiple coaches, is in good condition and is well lit.
  2. Find a practice leotard. Generally, to practice, rhythmic gymnasts wear a black dance style leotard with black leggings or shorts with their hair tied back. Many gyms have dress codes, so make sure you adhere to them.
    Leotard 1.png
  3. Get the necessary supplies. When starting out, the gym will generally provide the apparatus, but it is beneficial to have toe shoes, as well as a gym bag to hold water bottles and the like.
    • Make sure to get a high quality bag. You will be using it a lot, and it will be worth it.
    • Explore different styles, such as a duffel bag or a backpack.
  4. Be female if you wish to compete in rhythmic gymnastics. Though men's rhythmic gymnastics is developing, only females can participate in FIG sanctioned events, and only female rhythmic gymnastics is considered a sport by the FIG. Many clubs do not offer men's rhythmic gymnastics.
    You need to be ag ril.png
    • Men compete in four events[11]:
      • Stick (like a baton)
      • Rings (two small hoops)
      • Rope
      • Clubs
  5. Start young. Though it may look easy to toss apparatus, rhythmic gymnasts train from a very young age. It is very difficult to start rhythmic gymnastics late and still excel. The optimal ages for starting range from 4 to 8.
    Start young.png

EditImproving Your Flexibility, Endurance and Strength

  1. Become flexible. A key aspect of rhythmic gymnastics is flexibility. Very early on you will begin to improve your flexibility, most likely even before you begin apparatus training. Practicing at home will also help. Many gyms have home requirements for days without practice. Aim to learn to do all the stretches below:
  2. Improve flexibility. You thought just doing a split would be enough? Think again. You need to be very flexible for rhythmic gymnastics. Try the following to improve flexibility:
    • Get oversplits on all legs.
    • Grab your ankles with your hands in a bridge.
    • Try to straighten your legs in a chest stand.
    • Get a needle with and oversplit.
    • Point your toes to the ground with straight legs.
  3. Improve endurance. Rhythmic gymnasts compete from 1:15 individually to 2:30 in a group. While that may sound like a short time, you are constantly moving quickly and endurance training will help. Here are some ideas to assist with endurance:
    • Run a mile.
    • Do a routine directly after a run.
    • Consult your coach.
  4. Improve strength. Rhythmic gymnastics requires incredible strength, though to the untrained eye it may no seem so.
  5. Become one with your apparatus. You should feel completely at home with your apparatus. Try to make it look natural that you are tossing apparatus into the air. The best rhythmic gymnasts make the apparatus look like an extension of their body.

EditImproving Technical Elements

  1. Improve masteries. A mastery is a "technical element performed without the help of hands or with a roll on the body, which in addition uses a change of direction, level or a change of body in space, with or without loss of visual contact." [12] Simply put, it is an element in which the apparatus is manipulated while doing another skill such as a back walkover. Masteries can include a toss of the apparatus. Body coordination, balance, spacial awareness, and of course, skill with the apparatus can all help improve masteries. Examples of masteries are detailed below:
    • Rotating the hoop around the ankle while doing a back walkover.
    • Throwing the ball, then catching it with knees while sitting.
    • Placing the clubs on one foot, then doing a back illusion to pick them up.
    • Tossing both clubs with rotations, then catching the clubs with one hand.
    • Boomerang tosses with the ribbon (throw the ribbon stick out then pull back on the ribbon to bring it back)
    • Doing a full stag leap while jumping over the rope.
  2. Improve risks. A risk is a mastery with loss of visual contact with the apparatus. This just means that it has to be a blind catch or ending. A risk without a throw "Always a rolling of the apparatus on the body during a body rotation around the horizontal axis, with loss of visual contact with the apparatus,"[13] while a risk with a throw must have at least a total of two "rotation of the body on the vertical or horizontal axis, with or without passing on the floor," during the toss and "loss of visual contact with the apparatus during of an element with body rotation on the horizontal axis," during the catch. [14] With risks come a higher difficulty than masteries. Examples of risks are detailed below:
    • Toss of the apparatus, forward roll(s)
    • Toss, Illusion foreward and catch at the end of a roll foreward on the floor without hands
    • Rolling the ball from the tip of the hands down the spine with a catch at the end
    • Boomerang roll of the hoop up the legs of a back walkover
    • Toss, three pas chaîné turns to catch

EditImproving Dance Elements

  1. Improve leaps and jumps. Jumps and leaps are a crucial part of rhythmic gymnastics. The difference between a leap and a jump is while a jump starts and lands on two feet, a leap takes off of one foot and lands on the other. With this display of flexibility along with the look and feeling of weightlessness, rhythmic gymnasts spend much of their time on these elements. Some types of jumps and leaps to master are:
    • Split Leap, also known as a Grand Jete in ballet and a split jump (jump with a split at the height)
    • Sissone (a split jump landing like a leap)
    • Switch Split (the gymnast scissors her legs before ending in a split leap)
    • Stag Leap (the front, back, or both legs are bent) and stag jump
    • Wolf Leap (One leg is pulled up in a tuck position while the other is straight, landing on the leg which was tucked) and wolf jump
    • Side leap, also known as a straddle leap and straddle jump.
    • Leaps with twists (such as switch half or wolf full, which are leaps where a turn is added while in the air) or jumps with twists
    • Cat Leap
    • Ring leap (the gymnast kicks her back leg close to her head. Can be performed with or without a switch.) and ring jump (A.K.A phoenix)
    • Donut or sheep jump (the gymnast touches her head with both feet)
  2. Improve turns. Along with leaps, turns are something that rhythmic gymnasts focus on. Turns often include more than one rotation. Improving ankle strength to avoid sickling, and improving balance will help when learning turns and pirouettes. Some turns to aim to learn are:
    • Fouettés (often done en tournant or a la second)
    • Pirouettes (Usually in passé, with leg upright (in front or behind), with an arabesque or at attitude)
    • Double or Triple Pirouettes
    • Cossack turns (also known as squat or cat turn.)
    • Front scale turns (top half of body is held parallel to the ground)
    • Ring turn (a turn in a needle or scorpion position)
    • Penche turn (scale turn with a full or oversplit)
    • Front and back illusions.
  3. Improve balances. A balance is "a fixed and well-defined shape.. performed on the toes or on one knee," meaning that they simply must be a pose en relevé. Most of the dazzling flexibility the rhythmic gymnasts display is through balances. All balances must:
    Balance with ball.png
    •  Be performed on the toes or on one knee;[15]
    • Be maintained long enough in order to be clearly visible[16]
    •  Have a fixed and well-defined shape, without moving the free leg or the support leg during the difficulty;[17]
    •  Be connected with a Mastery element of the apparatus[18]


  • Practice at home. Unlike artistic gymnastics, many of the elements can be done safely at home.


  • As with any sport, there is a risk of injury.
  • Do not force yourself into any stretch.

EditSources and Citations

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