mardi 28 février 2017

How to Make Fluffy Slime

Fluffy slime isn't your traditional slime - it's soft, squishy, and fun to play with, while maintaining a solid form. You can stretch it out, squeeze it, and bend it, and still put it back together again. It's a soft slime that isn't nearly as sticky as other slimes, too! Why not take a bit of time and craft this fun slime?

EditIngredients

  • school glue
  • shaving cream
  • Slightly more than cornstarch
  • Borax
  • hot water
  • Lotion
  • foaming body wash, or foaming soap (optional)
  • Food coloring (optional)

EditSteps

  1. Start off by making the borax solution. Take of borax powder and add it into 1 cup (240 ml) of hot water. Mix it until it's thoroughly dissolved and set aside for later use.

  2. Pour ½ cup (120 ml) of glue into a separate bowl.

  3. Add ½ cup (120 ml) of shaving cream into the same bowl as the glue.

  4. Add ½ cup (120 ml) of foaming body wash or soap (optional). Adding the foaming body wash or soap can make the slime fluffier, but it's okay to forgo this step.

  5. Mix until there are no lumps. The substance should have a thick and fluffy texture, similar to marshmallow cream.

  6. Add in slightly more than 1 tablespoon (15 ml) of cornstarch. The cornstarch helps to thicken the slime and allows it to retain its shape.

    • The cornstarch isn't necessary for the recipe, but leaving it out will result in a thinner slime that won't hold its shape so much.
  7. Mix thoroughly, but carefully. (Cornstarch is easy to spill.)

  8. Add lotion to your slime. To make your slime stretchier, add in two pumps of hand lotion to your slime.

    • It's okay to skip this step if you don't want to add it at the moment - it can always be added later.
  9. Add in food coloring. Too much of some kinds of food coloring can stain your hands or other surfaces, so if it's a potent one, start with just two drops. Mix it well until there are no more white streaks.

  10. Add 3 teaspoons of the borax mixture to your slime. Stir thoroughly, then continue adding the borax mixture 1-3 teaspoons at a time until the slime is at the consistency you’d like it to be.

    • You will likely not use all of your borax mixture! It is important to not add too much of it or your slime will harden and break. The original recipe only uses 6-9 teaspoons (44 ml) of the borax solution.
  11. Knead the slime. Once the slime has clumped into a ball and is easy to remove from the bowl, place it on a flat surface and begin kneading it with your hands to thoroughly mix it.

    • If the slime is still too sticky, add about of the borax mixture and carefully knead it in.
  12. Rub lotion into your slime for a stretchier slime. If your slime is fluffy, but not very stretchy, add a few pumps of lotion into your slime, rub it into the slime, and then knead it again. Repeat until your slime is as stretchy as you want it to be.

    • It can take up to 16 extra pumps of lotion to reach the desired stretchiness, so don’t hesitate to be generous!
  13. Play with your slime. This slime is stretchy, squishy, and fun to play with - it's great for keeping your hands busy!

EditVideo

EditTips

  • Store the slime in an airtight container when you want to put it away.
  • Swap out cornstarch with baby powder if you're running low.
  • It's possible to use clear glue, but it's not really worth it. The slime mixture won't be clear when you add in the shaving cream, so it's best to stick with normal white glue.
  • You can use shaving gel in your slime, but it's best to mix the gel to make it foamy before adding it to the slime mixture to give it the desired fluffy effect.
  • If you're not using borax, don't add in your borax alternative to water - just add it into the slime. Adding it into water will dilute it and it won't activate the slime as well.
  • Make sure to keep your slime in a container or it may dry out.
  • Acrylic paints can be substituted for food coloring.
  • You can make more slime by doubling (or even tripling) the materials needed for the slime.
  • If you don't have borax, try making your slime with liquid starch, laundry detergent, or contact lens solution.
  • Out of shaving cream? Use foaming soap. It will still work.
  • The bigger the container, the more space the slime will have to stay the same texture.

EditThings You'll Need

  • Bowl
  • Stirring stick or spoon
  • Measuring tools

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations



source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2llTJ0n

How to Be Intelligent

Do you wish you were smarter? Do you wish other people believed you were smarter? The latter may be simpler than the former, but whether you genuinely want to increase your intellectual capacity, or just want to reap the benefits of appearing more intellectual, there are some concrete steps you can take to achieve you goal.

EditSteps

EditDeepening Your Intellect in a Meaningful Way

  1. Dedicate yourself to becoming a lifelong learner. People used to believe intelligence was fixed, and could not be improved through effort. Contemporary evidence, however, suggests this may not be the case; while an unintelligent person may never become a genius, it seems increasingly possible that anyone has the ability to strengthen her intellect to some degree.[1] The process is not as simple as just learning some new vocabulary words, though. It takes time and effort to learn how to engage more deeply and critically with the world around you.
    Be Intelligent Step 1 Version 3.jpg
  2. Follow your passions. People learn most effectively when they are passionate about their subject matter.[2] If you are passionate about something, you are bound to want to understand it more deeply; it is this kind of focused, sustained investigation that leads to increased intellect. True intelligence involves deep mastery of a few subjects, rather than a shallow understanding of a broad range of them.[3] Was Albert Einstein equally gifted in physics, anthropology, linguistics, geology, animal behavior, and literary criticism? Of course not. To be a proverbial jack-of-all-trades is to be a master of none; if you try to learn a little bit of everything, you may wind up understanding a whole lot of nothing.
    Be Intelligent Step 2 Version 3.jpg
  3. Challenge yourself. If you’re not struggling, you’re not pushing yourself. Learning shouldn’t be torture. It should be rewarding, though, and it probably won’t be if it doesn’t require much effort. Push yourself to master new ideas and enter unfamiliar intellectual territory.[4]
    Be Intelligent Step 3 Version 3.jpg
  4. Think about how you think. This is called “metacognition,” and it is something intelligent people excel at. Metacognition allows you to understand how you learn, and to apply those strategies from one context to another. If you realize you learn most effectively when you study on your own, for example, you will know not to join a study group in preparation for a final exam.[5]
    Be Intelligent Step 4 Version 3.jpg
  5. Take care of your body. People sometimes forget that the brain is a physical organ like any other. Just as you skin is healthier if you bathe and your lungs are healthier if you don’t smoke, a physically well-cared-for brain functions at a higher level than a neglected one. It may surprise you how much more effectively you process information if you get enough sleep and exercise, and eat plenty of fruits and vegetables.[6]
    Be Intelligent Step 5 Version 3.jpg
  6. Learn a language. This will force your brain to negotiate new ways of constructing meaning, and increase your intuitive and conscious understanding of language systems. Thinking more about language also has the added benefit of improving your facility with your first language, and learning all those new words will help improve your memory.[7]
    Be Intelligent Step 6 Version 3.jpg
  7. Learn to play a musical instrument. This exercises parts of your brain used for many kinds of cognitive processing, and introduces you to new ways of receiving and communicating information. It also helps improve your memory, and reduces stress, which can play a major factor in inhibiting intellectual growth.[8]
    Be Intelligent Step 7 Version 3.jpg
  8. Read the news. While keeping up with current events may not exactly increase your intellectual capacity, a truly intelligent, curious person should want to engage with the world she lives in. Having new ideas often involves building on existing ones, so it is always wise to understand as much as you can about the problems the world faces, and the ways people are trying to solve them. Remember, all news sources have a bias of some sort; make sure you get your news from a variety of sources, and never accept something as absolute truth just because it is in the newspaper.
    Be Intelligent Step 8 Version 3.jpg
  9. Rely less on technology. The ease with which we can obtain information today makes our lives much more convenient, but it can also make us stupider. The neural pathways involved in reading maps, for example, are probably much weaker in Millennials’ brains than in the brains of their parents. This is because most Millennials rely heavily on GPS navigation to help them find their way, while older generations had to get out an atlas if they got lost. In the same vein, if they can’t remember what a word means, many people are more likely to quickly Google it than they are to sit down and focus on trying to remember. Instead of strengthening their ability to recall information, they can effortlessly obtain the information with almost no thought. Try to rely on your phone less, and your brain more.[9]
    Be Intelligent Step 9 Version 3.jpg
  10. Be open-minded. Don’t write off new ideas because they are scary, confusing, or threaten the way you are used to thinking about the world. Be open to having your perspective changed. The ability to admit when you have been wrong is a hallmark of a great mind.
    Be Intelligent Step 10 Version 2.jpg
  11. Be okay with looking stupid. Curiosity is not the same as ignorance; truly intelligent people are constantly asking questions. This is because a wise woman knows that she does not know everything. When you start learning a new skill, you will not be very good at it. That’s natural. If you do something you’re bad at enough times, however, you’ll eventually start to be good at it. Embrace the gaps in your knowledge as portals to discovery and growth.
    Be Intelligent Step 11 Version 2.jpg

EditAppearing More Intelligent

  1. Use big words. It doesn’t take a genius to pick up some new vocabulary, but a few impressive words and some grammatical flourishes might give you the appearance of being an intellectual. Download a word-a-day app, or simply make some flashcards. Identify some common grammatical errors in your speech and correct them. You could even look up a few brainy-sounding literary quotations to pepper into your conversations. Remember, using impressive words is only impressive if you use them correctly--saying "juxtaposition" won't earn you any points if you don't understand what it means or how it's pronounced.
    Be Intelligent Step 12.jpg
  2. Be modest and reticent. The same way everyone kind of starts to suspect that the guy who keeps insisting he’s not racist might be kind of racist, if you constantly try to impress everyone with how smart you are, people may start to wonder. If you are taciturn and humble instead, people may infer that you are consumed with deep thoughts. One good opportunity to put this into action is if someone else makes a stupid comment in a group conversation. If you leap in to correct or mock them, you run the risk of seeming mean rather than intelligent. Instead, let them do the work for you--simply stay silent for a moment, letting their remark sink in, and just when it starts to feel awkward, move the conversation along. It will give the impression that you simply couldn't find a way to respond to such a ridiculous comment, and decided to move past it to spare that person further embarrassment.
    Be Intelligent Step 13.jpg
  3. Present yourself well. People tend to naturally assume that well-dressed, well-spoken individuals are more intelligent than sloppy ones who mumble all the time. You may also want to consider starting to wear glasses. It sounds silly, but when it comes to making people think you are intelligent, four eyes are better than two.[10]
    Be Intelligent Step 14.jpg
  4. Use your middle initial. Again, it sounds silly, and frankly, it is, but nonetheless, there is actual evidence to suggest that calling yourself Frank R. Miller instead of Frank Reginald Miller will make you seem smarter to other people.[11] If you want to capitalize on this effect, just add another letter, because yes, apparently it works like that.[12]
    Be Intelligent Step 15.jpg

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/170wq4E

How to Straighten Your Spine

The spinal column runs down the middle of your back and contains the spinal cord, which is like a superhighway of nerves that connect your brain to every tissue in your body. Needless to say, the health of your spine is of paramount importance. From the lateral or side view, your spine contains three main curves, which are needed for flexibility and stability.[1] However, viewing your spine from the back, it should be straight and not deviate from side-to-side very much at all. Some people are born with abnormally curved spines, but ill health, poor posture and inadequate nutrition are more responsible for spinal pathology.

EditSteps

EditUnderstanding How to Care for Your Spine

  1. Maintain good posture. Maintaining good posture while you sit, walk and sleep is probably the most important thing you can do for the health of your spine.[2] Many people have sedentary jobs where they sit for most of the day, so the height, comfort and support of chairs are crucial. Make sure your office chair is adjustable (so you can customize it to your dimensions) and try to get one with lumbar support for your low back. At home, use cushions to support your back and prop your legs up while watching television.
    Straighten Your Spine Step 1 Version 3.jpg
    • Try not to cross your legs or feet when you sit because it makes your hips unlevel and puts a strain on your lower back.
    • Make sure your computer screen is at eye level and centred in front of your chair, otherwise, you'll strain your neck and possible develop an abnormal curvature.
  2. Wear quality shoes. Your feet are crucial for good posture because they are the foundation for your entire body. As such, wear sturdy shoes with good arch support, a slightly raised heel (1/2 – 3/4 of an inch) and plenty of room for your toes. In contrast, avoid regularly wearing high-heeled shoes because they affect the body’s center of gravity and induce compensatory alignment of the entire body — they can cause too much extension (called hyperlordosis) in the lumbar spine.[3]
    Straighten Your Spine Step 2 Version 3.jpg
    • If you are really heavy, have flat feet or a short leg, then consider getting orthotics (custom-made shoe inserts) of heel lifts. Orthotics promote a healthy spine by supporting the arches and allowing better biomechanics when running or walking.
    • Orthotics are made by podiatrists, medical specialists and some chiropractors.
  3. Sleep on a firm mattress. You likely spend at least 1/3 of your life in your bed, so pay a little more attention to the quality of your mattress and how you sleep on it. For most people, firm mattresses are the best strategy in order to provide the necessary support for their spine. Memory foam top covers may also be helpful. You should consider changing mattresses every eight to 10 years. The thickness of your pillow should match the distance from the side of your head to the tip of your shoulder — a good rule of thumb to keep your neck aligned while sleeping.
    Straighten Your Spine Step 3 Version 3.jpg
    • The best sleeping position for your spine is laying on your side, with your hips and knees slightly bent, and with a small pillow wedged between your thighs, which helps to keep your hips aligned also.[4]
    • Try not to prop your head up with too many pillows while in bed reading because it will strain your neck and possibly reverse its normal lordosis (curve).
  4. Avoid carrying a heavy backpack or messenger bag. Even if you are only carrying the weight from class to class, or from school back home, the weight of a heavy backpack can have serious consequences on your spinal health, as it compresses your spine. It can cause spine curvature and may even prevent you from reaching your full height![5] Even worse, if you carry your backpack on only one shoulder or wear a bag that puts all the weight on one shoulder, such as a messenger-style bag, your spine can begin to curve.[6]
    Redeem Yourself Step 14 Version 2.jpg
    • When carrying a bag or backpack, make sure the weight is always evenly distributed between your shoulders. If you are carrying a very heavy suitcase or briefcase, make sure you don't always carry it on the same side.
    • Consider a rolling backpack or briefcase.
    • Try to make more trips to your locker throughout the day and swapping out textbooks instead of carrying them all with you. If your locker is far away and the passing periods are short, see if you can get a note from your doctor that will allow you a little extra time to go to your locker between classes.
  5. Exercise and be more active. Moderate exercise has many health benefits, including weight loss and increased muscle strength, which both positively impact the spine.[7] Carrying too much weight puts excessive pressure on spinal joints, making them more susceptible to wearing out and becoming misaligned. In addition, stronger muscles keep bones and joints within their normal positions. Weight training is a great way to build stronger muscles, but be careful not to overwork certain muscle groups while ignoring their counterparts because that can lead to poor posture. Consult with a personal trainer if you're unsure of how to train properly.
    Straighten Your Spine Step 4 Version 3.jpg
    • Every morning when you wake up, turn on your back and slowly do "snow angels" with your arms and legs for three to five minutes. The motions are great for warming up and lightly stretching many muscles important for keeping your spine aligned.
    • Using the rowing machine at the gym will strengthen the muscles between your shoulder blades and promote better upper body posture.
    • Pilates and yoga are other exercises that stretch and balance your body, especially the core muscles (abdomen, pelvis, low back), which form the foundation of good posture.
  6. Intake the necessary nutrients. To maintain strong, straight and healthy bones, certain nutrients are needed. Minerals such as calcium, magnesium and boron form the mineral matrix of bone and a deficiency of these can lead to bones that are too brittle and susceptible to fractures (known as osteoporosis). Vitamin D is also essential for bone health, and a lack of it leads to bones that are too soft and easily deformable (known as rickets in children or osteomalacia in adults).
    Straighten Your Spine Step 5 Version 3.jpg
    • Vitamin D is produced by your skin when it's exposed to intense summer sunshine.
    • The recommended dietary intake for calcium is 1,000 – 1,200 mg daily, depending on your age. The best natural sources of calcium are collards, kale, spinach, sardines, tofu, almonds and sesame seeds.[8]

EditEvaluating Your Spine

  1. Get a scoliosis screen. Scoliosis is an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, usually in the thoracic region (area between your shoulder blades), that can lead to back pain and restricted movement.[9] For unknown reasons, some people are born with scoliosis, while others develop it during adolescence. Screenings are usually done in middle school by nurses, but most health professionals are qualified to examine you for scoliosis. Screening usually involves bending forward at the hips and seeing if one shoulder blade sticks up more than the other.
    Straighten Your Spine Step 6 Version 3.jpg
    • Scoliosis screening is more important for kids than adults because some treatments (bracing or implantation of metal rods) can slow down or stop the progression of the condition while the spine is still developing.
    • Girls have a greater risk of developing scoliosis and a much higher risk of the curve worsening and requiring treatment.[10]
  2. See a medical specialist. If you have a positive scoliosis screening or have reason to believe your spine is somehow abnormal, then see a medical specialist. An orthopedic surgeon will carefully examine your spine and likely take X-rays to better understand your problem. The specialist will look for relatively common spinal pathologies such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and herniated discs — all of which can lead to abnormal spinal curvature and biomechanics.[11]
    Straighten Your Spine Step 7 Version 3.jpg
    • Specialists may also use CT scans, MRI, bone scans or more sophisticated X-rays to further diagnose your spinal condition.
    • Surgery is rarely used to treat or cure spinal diseases or abnormalities.
  3. See a chiropractor or osteopath. Chiropractors and osteopaths are spinal specialists who rely on more natural methods to treat the spine and other parts of the body, and don't rely on pharmaceuticals or use invasive methods such as surgery. They can evaluate your spine for any abnormalities including unusual curves, restricted motion or tight muscles.
    Straighten Your Spine Step 8 Version 3.jpg
    • Although some forward curvature in the thoracic spine or mid-back is normal, too much leads to a hyper-kyphosis or hunchback.[12] The most common causes of a hyper-kyphosis are osteoporosis, arthritis, tumors and bad (slouching) posture.
    • The thoracic spine can also be completely straight, which is actually considered abnormal and sometimes referred to as "military spine."
  4. Be aware of a small hemipelvis. Your pelvis is made up of two bones which are fused with ligaments. If one of these bones is smaller than the other, then it can cause you to sit or stand while tilting to toward the smaller bone.[13] This can lead to a curved spine in addition to many other health and posture problems. If you find that you often sit with your body tilted toward one side, ask your doctor about small hemipelvis.
    Wear Booties Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • To correct small hemipelvis, you can get inserts for your shoes and carry around a book or magazine to sit on so you don't lean to one side.[14]

EditGetting Helpful Treatments

  1. Get chiropractic adjustments. Regular treatments (perhaps monthly) from a chiropractor or osteopath is not only effective for spinal pain, but it may also keep you better aligned.[15] Chiropractors use a type of physical manipulation called spinal adjustments, which attempts to realign or unjam the small facet joints of the spine. Spinal adjusting can't reverse a scoliosis, but it can be important for maintaining normal spinal curvatures — especially following significant spinal trauma such as whiplash from a car accident.
    Straighten Your Spine Step 9 Version 3.jpg
    • Adjustment of a spinal joint may result in a popping sound — the same as when you “crack” your knuckles. The noise is caused by the change of pressure within the joint, which results in gas bubbles being released.
    • There is usually minimal, if any, discomfort involved with spinal adjustments.
  2. See a massage therapist. Get a back, shoulder, and/or neck massage from someone qualified to do so. Massage reduces muscle tension, which may be helpful for spinal alignment if you have tight muscles surrounding or attached to your spinal column and pulling on it. Massage is also effective for reducing stress, which is often a factor in developing poor posture, especially of the upper body.
    Straighten Your Spine Step 10 Version 2.jpg
    • Massage can squeeze lactic acid, toxins and compounds that cause inflammation out of muscles and other soft tissues and into your bloodstream, so always drinks lots of water in order to flush them out of your body.
    • Some massage therapists practice reflexology, which is the stimulation of parts of the foot to improve health. Ask your therapist to stimulate the points that are related to spinal health.
  3. Seek out physiotherapy. A physical therapist can show you specific and tailored stretches and strengthening exercises for your spine, and if need be, treat your spinal muscles with electrotherapy such as therapeutic ultrasound or electronic muscle stimulation. Exercises targeting the back extensors, neck flexors and pelvic muscles are crucial for good posture.
    Straighten Your Spine Step 11 Version 2.jpg
    • Progressive resistance training with weights can halt or reverse bone loss in some cases, which can help with spinal health and alignment.
    • If your muscles are sore following exercise or massage, then take an Epsom salt bath. The magnesium within the salt is great for relaxing tense muscles and dissolving pain.
  4. Get a prescription for medication. If you have osteoporosis or low bone density within your spine and fear fractures or deformity, then ask your doctor about medications that promote stronger bones, such as the numerous bisphosphonates that are on the market (Boniva, Reclast, Fosamax). Hormone-based medications that can help build bone density include raloxifene, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone.[16]
    Straighten Your Spine Step 12 Version 2.jpg
    • Bisphosphonates can increase the risk of rare fractures and cause bone, joint or muscle pain.
    • Teriparatide, a form of parathyroid hormone, increases the rate of bone formation and s the FIRST FDA approved drug for the treatment of osteoporosis and new bone formation.
  5. Consider surgery. Surgery of the spine should be considered a last resort for most people who have spinal problems, but sometimes it's the first choice for a child whose scoliosis is rapidly deforming their spine. The operation for scoliosis is a spinal fusion — essentially a "welding" process.[17] The basic idea is to realign and fuse together the curved vertebrae so that they heal into a single, solid bone. All spinal fusions use a bone graft, which are small pieces of bone that are placed into the spaces between the vertebrae to be fused. The bones then grow together, similar to when a broken bone heals.
    Straighten Your Spine Step 13 Version 2.jpg
    • Metal rods are typically used to hold the spine in place until fusion happens. The rods are attached to the spine by screws, hooks, and/or wires and then usually removed at a later time.
    • Possible complications from surgery include infection, allergic reaction to anesthesia, nerve damage and chronic swelling / pain.

EditTips

  • A big part of having good posture is being aware of your posture. Look in the mirror and correct your posture, focusing on how it feels, then train yourself to be aware of your posture at all times.
  • Spinal surgery is a major procedure that involves moving muscles and realigning the skeleton.The amount of pain people report after surgery varies a great deal from patient to patient.

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2m1iUZS

lundi 27 février 2017

How to Be a Great Speaker

There is a commonly cited statistic that people are generally more fearful of public speaking than they are of death. The idea of performing a speech in front of an attentive audience is a nerve-wracking concept for most people. Fortunately, it doesn't have to be. Being a great speaker is a skill that is learned just as much as any other. When you have a strong command of your voice and self-presentation, confidence with public speaking tends to fall into place.

EditSteps

EditArticulating Your Voice

  1. Listen to recorded speeches.[1] If you want to become a great speaker, you should first have an idea on what it means to be great. Famous speeches became that way in part because the speaker knew how to wring the most feeling and meaning out of what he was saying. Pay attention to the pauses they take, the words they emphasize, and the steady pace most famous speakers perform at. Public speaking is ultimately an art. There are countless ways you can perform the same speech.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • The most famous speeches of the 20th century are easy to access. Their iconic status also goes to show how much power a gifted speaker has to change peoples' minds.[2]
  2. Talk slowly.[3] As a public speaker, you should never feel the need to rush through a presentation. Because anxiety tends to make people speak much faster than they normally would, you should be aware of your rate of speech. Make a conscious point of speaking slowly. If your speech is happening at a more manageable rate, it will be easier for you to feel like you're in control.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    • Speaking slowly does not mean speaking in a monotone. Just because you're taking your time doesn't mean you need to be boring. The best public speakers will keep a steady speaking pace and use that extra time to inject more expression into their act.
  3. Minimize filler words and stammering. Filler words include things such as "like" and "um". They are words that only exist in a live presentation because the speaker's mind need a second to catch up with the rest of the speech. Mishaps like this and other verbal slip-ups are most often the result of anxiety. While anxiety is totally natural and is to be expected, it's a good sign you need to slow down. A speaker speaking really slowly is better than one who is stuttering through important lines.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • If you need a moment to recollect yourself in the middle of your speech, you should allow yourself the time to pause.[4] While filler language only serves to detract from your presentation, a pause can be beneficial for the audience to digest what you've said so far as well.
  4. Emphasize or repeat particularly important lines.[5] Even if you have gone over every word of your speech with a fine-toothed comb, there are going to be lines that are most important to the central idea you're discussing. In the case of these especially important lines, it's crucial you bring added attention to them somehow. This can be done by saying them more slowly, more loudly, or repeating the same line twice. Your audience will immediately pick up on the tactic you used and will take extra care to remember that point.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 4 Version 2.jpg
  5. Express emotion through inflections. Although you may feel very anxious going into a speech, it may actually make things easier if you allow yourself the ability to connect emotionally with the topic and express yourself. Raising and lowering your voice to denote certain feelings can do a ton to engage an audience. As a general rule, people like to feel like they're being spoken to by a red-blooded human being. Acting like a robot may seem like a safe route if you're nervous about speaking, but you'll get a lot farther if you're candid with your audience.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 5 Version 2.jpg
    • Avoid a monotone delivery. This approach is common with people who put too much emphasis into a rote memorization of the speech lines, and didn't leave room for an organic quality.
  6. Pause for effect. Much as with an emphasis technique on a given word, a well-placed silence can say a lot. Pauses are a good thing to place after a particularly heavy or important idea has been stated, or in between relatively unrelated points to serve as a sort of paragraph break. A pause also gives the audience a chance to show their appreciation. Even if you don't need the warmth, members of your audience will feel more confident in your abilities if they see other people in the crowd cheering you on.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 6 Version 2.jpg
  7. Interact with your audience.[6] Speeches can be memorized with enough time and practice, but a truly gifted orator will use parts of his speech as an opportunity to communicate directly to the audience. If an audience member has a question, it would be a wasted opportunity not to answer it. The audience will be impressed by your willingness to play off the books and interact seemingly spontaneously.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 7 Version 2.jpg
    • An audience won't interact with a speaker unless some stakes have already been raised. You have to get an audience interested in what you're talking about if you want them to respond actively.[7]
    • Trying to engage the audience yourself is always a risk. You can't control what an audience member will say, and you'll need to improvise a response to whatever they say. Worse still, getting no response from an audience will embarrass you as a presenter.[8]

EditMaximizing Your Body Language

  1. Keep a firm posture.[9] A strong posture is one of the most telling signs of confidence. Suffice to say, it's a look you'll want to have whenever you're speaking publically. Keep your back straight, and your shoulders jutted outward. If you're someone who struggles with a slouched posture, it may take some time to reprogram yourself. However, after enough time doing it, you'll eventually do it without thinking.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 8 Version 2.jpg
  2. Allow yourself to express emotion through your face.[10] If you're nervous, your face will freeze up. Words alone only go so far in communication. The best speeches are emotionally hard-hitting, and it's intensified when the same feelings are being mirrored by the speaker. Whether rehearsed or not, matching facial expressions will lend your speech with a great air of authenticity.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 9.jpg
  3. Stake a claim on your personal area.[11] Whether you're speaking on stage or something more casual, chances are there's a larger physical space you could be occupying. Even if you're the most riveting speaker, there is going to be a part of your audience that wants to be engaged visually as well. Getting your audience's eyes to follow you as you stride across the stage will make your presentation (and topic) feel all that more dynamic.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 10.jpg
    • If you're addressing the audience directly with someone, you should walk towards them on the stage. This creates an effect of urgency.[12]
  4. Scan your eyes across everyone you're speaking to.[13] Eye contact is essential if you want to foster a connection with the audience he's speaking to. This doesn't need to be a constant thing, and you don't need to make eye contact with each individual in the crowd. Instead, simply scanning your eyes around the your audience from side to side can instill a sense of interaction between the speaker and his attendees.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 11.jpg
  5. Use gestures in tandem with what you're saying.[14] Body language is a powerful tool on the stage, but it's only worth as much as it relates to the topic you're speaking about. Think of hand waves and gestures as exclamation marks in your speech. By using your body as an additional form of communication, you can ride home your point on multiple levels.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 12.jpg
  6. Keep your movements controlled.[15] Above all, you should keep every noticeable movement of your body under control when you are speaking. Many people will fidget and squirm when they're nervous. This isn't the sort of impression you want to get across if you intend on a successful presentation. Your body language should not be left up to whim or chance. If you're not comfortable with public speaking enough yet to balance the vocal presentation with purposeful body language, it is preferable to keep yourself completely still. Rest assured, unconscious movements are going to work against your presentation.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 13.jpg

EditKnowing Your Words

  1. Structure your speech with a beginning, middle and end.[16] Speeches are like oral essays. They tend to follow a similar format for the most part. If you're writing your speech yourself, you should try breaking it up into sections in order to better organize your points. Even if you haven't written the speech, it's a good idea to know what structural role each part represents. Generally speaking, virtually all speeches will have three parts:
    Be a Great Speaker Step 14.jpg
    • An introduction. This is where you will introduce either yourself or the topic that needs to be discussed.
    • The main body and supporting points. This is where the details of your argument or discussion are fleshed out. This is by far the biggest part of a speech, and is analogous to all of the paragraphs in an essay between the first and last.
    • Closing statements and summary. At the end, the audience will be looking for some closure to signal the speech's end. Take this as an opportunity to note the widespread implications of the topic, as well as a to-the-point recap of the ideas you explored in the main body.
  2. Include a take-home message. No matter how complex the subject you're talking about is, there should be a line or two from your speech that will be instantly memorable for anyone who is hearing it. This could be the thesis, or central point of what you're trying to say. A take-home message should preferably take the form of an applied request.[17] Telling your audience to do or reflect upon something on their own time will hopefully keep your audience attentive on your subject long after the presentation itself has ended.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 15.jpg
    • Any messages of particular importance should be spoken more boldly, more slowly, or repeated.
  3. Keep time in mind.[18] While great speakers will keep their speaking pace relaxed and take cares not to speed up, you should respect the time of your audience. There is no need to have a half-hour speech where all of the same points could be covered in 20 minutes. It's much easier to revise the speech itself than to try to speed through sections of your speech. If you think your speech could be shorter, give it a run through and decide for yourself which lines could be done without.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 16.jpg
  4. Rehearse your speech.[19] Nothing great ever came about without hard work and practice. Rehearsing your speech is necessary if you want your audience to take something away from your presentation and take you seriously. Perform your speech in front of a mirror and pay attention to the way you look while you're speaking. It also helps to record yourself speaking. That way, you'll be able to see what you're doing right and wrong more clearly.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 17.jpg
    • It's a good idea to give your speech a run-through in front of a friend or family member before going live. That way, the other person can offer you feedback from a fresh perspective.
  5. Thank your audience once the speech is over.[20] Even if you're the one who is performing, your audience members are taking time out of their schedules to hear you speak about your topic. For this, they deserve some gratitude. Telling a crowd how much you appreciate lending their time to you will end your speech on a positive note of warmth.
    Be a Great Speaker Step 18.jpg

EditTips

  • Public speaking doesn't come naturally to many people. It's something you'll probably have to spend some serious time practicing in order to perfect. Don't let yourself feel down if you slip up the first few times you perform. It's a lifelong skill, and once you get the hang of it, it will stick with you for the rest of your days.
  • Include visual aids (such as Powerpoint) in your presentation, but only if it legitimately adds something of value.[21]

EditWarnings

  • You can never know for sure how an audience will react to your presentation. Be prepared for a less-than-stellar reception, and should the case arise, make sure you roll with the punches. Getting visibly on stage won't do anything for your credibility.

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/29WoCbv

How to Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant

Aloe vera plants make great indoor or outdoor plants; they are also handy to have around because of their healing properties. These plants are succulents, and therefore can become sick due to overwatering, underwatering, and other environmental factors. Root rot is one of the most common ailments of Aloe vera plants, but they can also become sunburned. If your Aloe vera plant looks a little under the weather, don’t lose hope! You can still revive it!

EditSteps

EditRepotting Due to Root Rot

  1. Remove the Aloe vera plant from its current pot. One of the typical reasons for Aloe vera plant death is root rot. In order to determine if this is the case, you need to first take the plant out of its pot.[1]
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • Loosely hold the base of the plant and the bottom of your pot. Tip the pot upside down, and continue holding the plant with your other hand. Hit the bottom of the pot with your hand or knock it against a table ledge (or other hard surface).[2]
    • Depending on the size of your plant, you may need another person to help you. One person should hold the plant base with both hands, while the other person tips the pot upside down and hits the bottom.[3]. You might also find it helpful to jostle the pot back and forth until the plant comes loose.
    • If you still have difficulties removing your plant with two sets of hands, you can run a trowel or knife around the interior of the pot and try releasing it again, or push some of the soil out through the drainage holes in the bottom of the pot. If your plant still does not come out of the pot, you may need to break your pot, but this is a last resort.[4]
    • While releasing the Aloe Vera plant from its pot, be sure that you are keeping the plant itself as steady as possible. All the movement should be centered on the pot, not the plant itself. In other words, hold, don’t pull, the plant. Hitting the bottom of the pot will keep your roots intact, and gravity will push the plant downward.
  2. Tend the roots. Examine the roots and determine how many of the roots are still healthy. Mushy roots are characteristic of root rot and need to be removed.[5] Any roots that aren’t black or mushy are good and can be kept.
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    • If you see a lot of healthy roots and only a section of dead or mushy roots, you can likely save your plant without too much trouble, but you’ll need to cut away the damaged roots.[6] You can use a sharp, sterilized knife to cut away the dead roots,[7] but make sure to get them all.
    • If you notice that the majority of your plant has damaged roots, it will take a little more effort to save the plant, and it may be beyond saving. In this case, you can try to save the plant by removing the largest leaves (with a knife). Cut away about half of the plant. This method is risky. However, with fewer leaves to nourish, the small amount of undamaged roots can better direct nutrients throughout the plant.[8]
  3. Chose a pot that is one-third larger than the root system. Any excess soil will hold water and could cause root rot in the future, so a smaller pot is better than a larger one.[9]
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • The roots of Aloe vera plants grow horizontally, rather than vertically. [10] Aloe vera plants can also become quite heavy, and the weight of the plant can cause a narrow pot to tip over. Thus, select a wide pot, rather than a deep or narrow pot.[11]
    • The pot you choose should also have plenty of drainage holes on the bottom so that excess water does not sit in the soil.[12]
    • A plastic pot is best if you live in a dryer climate, while a pot made from terra cotta or clay is best for cooler or humid areas.[13]
  4. Use potting soil suitable for cactus or succulents. This type of soil has a higher sand content and produces a well-draining environment for your plant. You can find this type of soil easily at your local garden center.[14]
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    • You can also create your own soil mix for your Aloe vera plant by mixing equal parts of sand, gravel or pumice, and soil.[15] Be sure to use a coarse sand (like builder’s sand), rather than a fine sand. Fine sand can clump and hold water, rather than allowing it to drain down and through the pot.[16]
    • Although you can use potting soil for Aloe vera plants, they will thrive better in a mixed soil.[17] Potting soil is more likely to hold moisture and could therefore cause root rot.
  5. Replant your Aloe vera. Prepare the pot by filling it with the potting soil mixture, and shake your Aloe vera plant gently to remove about a third of the soil that has attached itself to the root ball.[18] Place your plant in the newly prepared pot and cover the top with more of the potting soil mixture. Be sure that the entire root ball is covered with the soil mixture , but don't bury the plant deeper than it was in the first pot.[19]
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 5.jpg
    • You can also layer small rocks or gravel on the top of the soil, which helps reduce the evaporation of water.[20]
  6. Do not water immediately after repotting. Your Aloe vera plant needs a few days to readjust to its new pot and to repair any broken roots.[21]
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 6.jpg

EditMonitoring Water

  1. Check the soil. You can tell if your Aloe vera plant needs to be watered by pressing your index finger a few inches down into the soil. If the soil is dry, your plant needs water. Aloe vera plants are succulents and do not need to be watered often. Overwatering can kill your plant![22]
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 7.jpg
    • If you keep your plant outside, watering every two weeks should be sufficient.[23]
    • If you keep your plant inside, water it every three to four weeks.[24]
  2. Modify watering according to the season. Aloe vera plants need more water in the warmer months, but less in the cooler months. Water less often in Fall and Winter, especially if your plant lives in a cool space.[25]
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 8.jpg
  3. Examine the leaves. As a succulent, Aloe vera plants store water in their leaves. If you notice the leaves are dropping or are becoming almost transparent, your plant likely needs water.[26]
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 9.jpg
    • However, the same qualities can be a sign of root rot, caused by overwatering. Ask yourself when you watered your plant last. If you watered it recently, you should remove the plant from the pot and check for root rot.[27]
  4. Water until the soil is just moist. Water should never sit on top of the surface of the soil, so water with a light hand. Continue to check your plant weekly or bi-weekly by testing the soil to see if it needs to be watered.
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 10.jpg

EditCaring for a Sunburnt Plant

  1. Check the leaves. If the leaves of your Aloe vera plant are turning brown or red, your plant may be sunburned.[28]
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 11.jpg
  2. Reposition your plant. Move your plant to a place where it receives indirect, rather than direct, sunlight.[29]
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 12.jpg
    • If your plant is typically in a position to receive artificial light rather than sunlight, reposition the plant so that there is a greater distance between it and the light source. You can also try moving it outside so that it is getting some indirect natural light, rather than artificial light.[30]
  3. Water your plant. Check the soil and determine if your plant needs to be watered. The soil is likely dry if your plant has been getting too much sunlight, since the water would be evaporating more quickly.[31]
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 13.jpg
  4. Remove dead leaves. With a sharp, sterilized knife, cut the leaf away from the plant at the base. Any leaves that are dead take nutrients from other parts of the plant, so be sure to remove them so that the rest of your plant doesn’t suffer.[32]
    Revive a Dying Aloe Vera Plant Step 14.jpg

EditTip

  • Instead of snapping off leaves when you want to use the aloe, cut the leaves at the base with a sharp knife where the leaf meets the soil. The plant will heal itself better from a more precise cut.[33]

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2lrcP5X

How to Clean a Genuine Leather Sheepskin Rug

Natural sheepskin rugs are very easy to care for, and when washed properly, they can look like new again. If your rug is small and relative...