vendredi 30 septembre 2016

How to Reduce Hair Loss

It is normal to lose 50 to 100 hairs a day. If you are losing more hair, you might be experiencing hair loss. Excessive hair loss, or alopecia, happens when your cycle of hair growth and shedding is disrupted or your hair follicle is destroyed and replaced with scar tissue. Hair loss can affect your scalp or entire body. You can lose hair due to heredity, hormonal changes, medical conditions, or medications. Men, women, and children all can experience hair loss.[1] By taking medications and making lifestyle changes, however, it is possible to counteract hair loss.

EditSteps

EditPreventing Further Hair Loss

  1. Reduce stress. Having high stress levels can lead to particular types of hair loss.[2] Try to stay relaxed. Practice meditation, take walks, or do yoga. Consider writing in a journal to help sort through daily stresses. Hair loss from stress need not be permanent. If you can reduce your stress levels, your hair might regrow.[3] The following types of hair loss result from excess stress:
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 1.jpg
    • If you have telogen effluvium, significant stress pushes large numbers of hair follicles into a resting phase. Within a couple months, affected hairs fall out suddenly when you comb or wash your hair.
    • With trichotillomania, you have an irresistible urge to pull hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of your body. You might do this to deal with stress, tension, loneliness, boredom, or frustration.
    • Stress also can cause alopecia areata. With this condition, your immune system attacks your hair follicles, which causes hair loss.[4]
  2. Treat your hair well. Avoid tight hairstyles, such as braids, buns, or ponytails. Do not twist, rub, or pull your hair excessively. Be gentle when washing your hair with warm (not hot) water. Do not brush your hair too hard. A wide-toothed comb can help you avoid pulling out excess hairs. Minimize harsh treatments on your hair like hot rollers, curling irons, hot oil treatments, and permanents.[5]
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 3.jpg
  3. Drink plenty of water. You hair shaft is comprised of 25% water. Drink at least sixty-four ounces of water (eight cups of 8 oz.) per day. This will help you stay hydrated and assist hair growth.[6]
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 4.jpg
  4. Incorporate herbs into your diet. Sage is thought to increase hair density while rosemary may stimulate hair growth. You can cook with both herbs. Try to use them weekly and buy fresh rather than dried rosemary if possible.[7] Eating a nutritionally balanced diet will also help prevent hair loss.[8]
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 5.jpg
    • You also can mix rosemary with almond oil. Apply the concoction directly to your scalp in bald areas.[9]

EditUtilizing Natural Remedies

  1. Apply topical, crude onion juice. Applying onion juice to one’s scalp has been proven to treat patchy hair loss.[10] The sulfur content in onions boosts collagen production and helps your hair to grow.[11] Researchers believe onion flavonoids might have anti-inflammatory effects.[12] Although you can purchase onion juice in the store, to make and use your own, follow these steps:[13]
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 6.jpg
    • Chop an onion into fine pieces.
    • Squeeze out the juice with your hand or use a juicer machine.
    • Apply the juice to your scalp for about 15 minutes.
    • Gently wash your hair.
    • Repeat two to three times a week.
  2. Make a garlic and coconut oil concoction. Like onions, garlic has a rich sulfur content that can help regrow your hair. Coconut oil has plentiful essential fats, minerals, and proteins, which decrease hair loss and breakage. Garlic’s iron and potassium levels make your hair stronger.[14] To make a garlic ointment, do the following:[15]
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 7.jpg
    • Gather several garlic cloves and coconut oil.
    • Crush the garlic cloves with a garlic press.
    • Mix the garlic together with one teaspoon coconut oil.
    • Boil this mixture for a few minutes. Stir gently.
    • After the mixture cools, apply it to your scalp in a gentle, massaging motion. Repeat two to three times a week.
  3. Take a capsaicin supplement. A study in Growth Hormone & IGF Research showed that capsaicin, the compound in peppers that make them hot, stimulated a growth factor associated with hair growth. Test subjects took a 6 mg supplement daily for five months. Talk to your doctor about incorporating the supplement into your diet.[16]
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 8.jpg
  4. Massage your scalp with jojoba oil. Rub the oil into your scalp and hair. Especially focus on areas with existing hair loss. Jojoba oil is an anti-inflammatory,[17] which may be why it can help with some kinds of hair loss. You can find jojoba oil in health and wellness stores and in some grocery stores.[18]
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 9.jpg

EditFighting Hair Loss with Professional Treatments

  1. Visit a doctor. If you are concerned about your hair loss, visit your doctor to discuss treatment options. There are a variety of alternatives, including medication, laser treatment, and surgery. Which option you pursue will depend on your budget, severity of hair loss, and available time.
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 10.jpg
    • In some cases, hair loss is due to estrogen deficiency or thyroid issues. Identifying and treating these underlying issues may correct the problem, reducing or ending your hair loss.
  2. Take medications. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have approved two drugs to combat hair loss. The first, Minoxidil (Rogaine), is a non-prescription liquid or foam available at drug stores. Both men and women can benefit from this drug. For women, this is the only approved hair loss medication. Twice a day, you rub the product into your scalp. The product works to grow new hair and/or to prevent additional hair loss. Finasteride (Propecia) is a prescription drug available only to men. One takes a daily pill. Many finasteride users experience slowed hair loss and some may have new hair growth. With both drugs, you must continue use for the effects to last.[19]
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 11.jpg
    • Possible side effects of Minoxidil include scalp irritation, undesired hair growth on your face and hands, and a rapid heart rate.[20]
    • Some uncommon side effects of finasteride include reduced libido, decreased sexual function, and a higher risk of prostate cancer. Women who are potentially pregnant should not touch broken tablets.[21]
  3. Consider surgery. For long-term hair loss, hair transplant or hair restoration surgery are options. If you pursue this treatment, your surgeon would remove small skin plugs, which each contain a couple hairs, from your scalp. She would then put the plugs into your bald spots.
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 12.jpg
    • Your doctor might ask you to take hair loss medication prior to and following your surgery to improve your results.
    • Surgery for baldness is costly and can cause significant pain. You could end up with infections or scarring.[22]
  4. Use laser therapy. Both women and men can treat pattern baldness with low-level laser combs like HairMax Laser comb. The procedure is FDA-approved.[23] To treat your hair at home, you move the laser comb slowly from the front of your scalp to the back and then from the sides to the center. A beep sounds every four seconds to let you know when to move. A recent scientific study proved that laser combs (applied three times per week) do improve hair growth.[24]
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 13.jpg
    • Each treatment takes ten to fifteen minutes. You should treat your hair three times a week.

EditUnderstanding Your Hair Loss

  1. Identify how you are losing your hair. You might have gradual thinning on the top of your head or circular or patchy bald spots. Does your hair come out in fistfuls? Are you losing hair on your head or all over your body? Do you have patches of scaling on your scalp?[25] Noting your symptoms will help you diagnose what is causing your hair loss.
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 14.jpg
  2. Discover the root cause of your hair loss. Hair loss can happen at any time in one’s life due to many reasons. Changes in hormones, illness, burns, and trauma all might cause hair loss. A family history of androgenetic alopecia, or baldness caused by variations in the androgen dihydrotestosterone, also is a contributing factor.[26] Hair loss is not caused, however, by poor circulation to the scalp, vitamin deficiencies, dandruff, or excessive hat or cap-wearing. Furthermore, it is untrue that a gene passed from a person’s maternal grandfather causes baldness.[27]
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 15.jpg
    • Androgenetic alopecia (pattern baldness) affects both men and women. In men, hair begins to recede from the forehead in a line resembling the letter M. Women usually keep their hairline but their part widens.
    • Patchy hair loss, which appears as smooth, coin-sized bald spots usually on the scalp can indicate that one has alopecia areata.[28]
    • If you are experiencing significant changes in your hormones, like if you are a woman going through menopause, you may experience hair loss. Talk to your doctor about treating your hair loss at the hormonal level.
    • Physical or emotional shocks can cause hair to loosen. You might lose handfuls of hair when combing or washing your hair. Generally, your hair will feel and look thinner overall. Patches of baldness are unlikely.
    • Hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid, may cause hair loss.[29] Treating the hypothyroidism may halt your hair loss.
    • If you have lost hair all over your body, this could be a result of some medical treatments like chemotherapy for cancer. Your hair usually will grow back with time.
    • Ringworm is another cause of hair loss. Patches of scaling can spread over your scalp. Further symptoms are broken hair, redness, and oozing.[30]
  3. Be aware of risk factors associated with baldness. If you have androgenetic alopecia rather than hair loss caused by illness or trauma, understand associated risk factors. Men with alopecia are more likely to suffer from coronary heart disease, prostate enlargement and cancer, diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure. Women who suffer from androgenetic alopecia have an increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).[31]
    Reduce Hair Loss Step 16.jpg

EditTips

  • You might consider getting a wig or wearing scarves to cover your hair loss. If your hair loss is due to a medical condition, your insurance might cover the wig cost. Your doctor must write you a prescription for a wig.[32]

EditWarnings

  • If you have tried all the at-home methods and nothing seems to work, consult your doctor. Also, see a doctor if your child experiences unexplained hair loss. In some cases, hair loss can be a symptom of a more serious problem.

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations


Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found




source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2dugUlF

How to Keep Your Child Tech Safe

Children are more likely to master everything they see, or get interested in, at a very young age. It's best encourage children in the process of learning, but with some precautions. Using technology has become a necessity in our modern age. Many find it a need to teach children internet etiquette and manners and guide them, so that they respect their own privacy, and that of others, too.

EditSteps

EditBefore Setting Rules on Tech Access

  1. Consider the age of your child. Allowing your child to use technology and the internet unsupervised is a huge step up in independence for them, so it's important to consider your child's age, and therefore, how much independence they get. Consider your child's age and maturity to determine how safe they'd be online. A child that's overly trusting may need some restrictions on what they do online, and be limited to using non-online apps.
    Keep Your Child Tech Safe Step 1.jpg
    • If your child is age five, for example, it would be better to block all non-game or non-learning sites and restrict device time to one hour per day. When your child is sixteen, however, this is often seen as far too restrictive, especially seeing as the interests of a sixteen-year-old are very different from the interests of a five-year-old, and teenagers often need to go online for homework.
    • Just because your child is very young doesn't mean that they are immature, and vice versa. Tailor your rules on technology based on the level of responsibility your child has shown in the past.
  2. Consider how trustworthy your child is. How much you can trust your child is a big influence on the device and internet access they should be allowed. Can you trust your child to listen to you if you say, "Don't go on this website", or do you think your child would access it anyway? If they're in the latter group, you may want to see if you can block certain websites to prevent the child from accessing them.
    Keep Your Child Tech Safe Step 2.jpg
    • Never base the trustworthiness of your child off of anything other than evidence. If you're just suspicious of your child using the internet for "bad things" when they've never given you any signs that they're badly behaved, whether online or in real life, being overly suspicious and putting too many restrictions on your child can severely strain the relationship between you and your child.
  3. Make a list of things your child should not be allowed to do. Technology should not be a giant list of "don't"'s, but you'll want to set some ground rules for your child so that they get a basic idea of what they should and shouldn't do online. Make sure the list of rules is age-appropriate ("no accessing websites without checking with a parent" may be good for a child in early elementary school, but sounds ridiculous in high school) and there are consequences for violating these rules.
    Keep Your Child Tech Safe Step 3.jpg
    • A sample list for a preteen may look something like:
      • No downloading software or apps or buying in-app purchases without permission
      • No installing programs on the computer without a parent's knowledge
      • No tampering with programs installed by a parent (e.g. antivirus software, parental controls)
      • No accessing sites that are not known and trusted
      • No texting or IM'ing people you've only just met online
      • No use of the internet to bully or harass others, whether they're known in person or not
    • Try to base these rules on past behavior, as stated above.
  4. Decide about your child's social media usage. Some parents allow their children to sign up for social media sites when they're under the age of 13 (which is the age restriction for most social media sites, due to child privacy laws), while others forbid their child from using social media until a certain age, if at all. This choice is completely up to you, but it should be made responsibly. Additionally, anyone-whether over 13 or under-should never use social media in a way that endangers them or others, or bullies people; make a rule with your child or teen that if they are found behaving this way, their social media privilege will be revoked.
    Keep Your Child Tech Safe Step 4.jpg
    • As a general rule, a child under the age of 10 probably should not be on social media sites such as Facebook. Because your child is still fairly young, they may not properly understand that what you put on social media is out there forever, and they may make some bad choices.
    • Those under 13 that are allowed on social media should have their accounts supervised to make sure that they're not abusing the accounts.
      • Only check your child's social media account once in a while or if you have a good reason to suspect your child is abusing their social media privileges. If you do this too often, your child may feel that their privacy is being violated, leading to a loss of trust and a bad parent-child relationship.
    • Teens 13 and over should not be completely unsupervised, but don't watch their social media accounts unless you have a good reason to (e.g. there have been complaints from parents that your child is harassing other children). You may also want to set special rules on some social media sites; certain websites are known for having many, many bullies.
  5. Sit down and talk with your child. Before putting these rules in place and starting to enforce them, bring your child into the decision. Lay out the ground rules, and ask what your child thinks about it. Explain which rules are non-negotiable (for example, no tampering with parental controls or using social media for engaging in bad behavior), and which rules you'd be willing to compromise on, and let your child give their input. Be willing to listen and compromise, but also be sure to not let your child run the show. You are a parent, not someone who comes up with ideas that your child scraps.
    Keep Your Child Tech Safe Step 5.jpg
    • Be careful to make sure that you don't jump to change the rules; this can imply to your child that you are a pushover. However, some changes may be necessary; if your child is fourteen, for example, and you have a one-hour limit on computer time, your child may not finish their online homework with that little time.
    • Always explain the reason behind each of your rules, including natural consequences that may follow infractions. This will help make things more clear for your child.

EditWhen Your Child Has Access

  1. Create an administrator account, and keep the password secret. Administrator accounts on any device - computer, tablet, phone, or so forth - prevent your child from installing or uninstalling software on the device without your knowledge. It also prevents them from changing settings on the parental controls if parental controls have been installed. Make sure the password is something hard to guess (so don't use a pet's name, a birthday, or anything else that your child could easily figure out), and don't let your child know what it is.
    Keep Your Child Tech Safe Step 6.jpg
    • As with all passwords, don't write the password anywhere in the computer, even if it's in the administrator account. A child with good enough computer skills would know how to find this without signing in to the administrator account.
  2. Limit screen time. Spending too much time in front of screen is not good for a child's brain and eyes. For young children, one or two hours of screen time per day should be enough. Set a limit on how much time your child can spend on the computer, and enforce it.
    Keep Your Child Tech Safe Step 7.jpg
    • The only exception to your child's time limit should be if they're trying to do their homework and have run out of time. However, you may want to do this sparingly, as many children and teens put off their homework and then rush to get it done at the last minute. Consider limiting this to when they have a big assignment only.
      • You can also stop homework from counting towards screen time. Make sure your child is on task when working on homework online.
    • Use of multiple devices at the same time should be avoided.
    • You may want to set parental controls on the child's accounts that prevents them from logging on at nighttime hours, and perhaps limits their time on the devices in general. However, be careful about this - some parental control programs have been known to be faulty, even ones that come installed with the computer's operating system!
  3. Secure the internet. Many children stumble across things on the internet that they don't mean to; often, the best way to prevent this is to prevent those "things" from being accessed. Create a balance between safety and freedom. You should strive for an environment where your child is safe, productive, and fun.
    Keep Your Child Tech Safe Step 8.jpg
    • If your child repeatedly breaks rules regarding internet usage, try setting a password to prevent him or her from accessing the Internet on their own.
    • For younger children, using "safe search" can also be useful. Be warned that safe search often blocks false positives, i.e. websites that don't actually contain inappropriate content.
    • Depending on your child's behavior, you may want to use a program that requires sites to be whitelisted before they can be accessed. However, a few programs go over-the-top and block sites such as Google, so be careful as to what you install. In many cases, it may be better to use a program that allows you to blacklist sites, rather than whitelist them.
  4. Respond accordingly to abuse of internet privileges. Unfortunately, most children and teens end up misusing the internet at some point; if and when this happens with your child, you'll need to respond accordingly to prevent it from happening again. Depending on how serious the offense was, it may work to simply take down the offending content, or you may have to impose a temporary ban on a certain technology.
    Keep Your Child Tech Safe Step 9.jpg
    • Do not ever yell or curse at your child during this process. For example, rather than shouting, "Why on earth would you do that?! That's such a stupid thing to do!", say calmly, "I understand that you showing our address in that video online was an accident, but it's still against our rules of the internet," or, "Your behavior towards your classmates online is unacceptable, and we agreed that you would not use the internet to behave in this way".
    • Everyone makes mistakes once in a while. If it's the first time a minor rule was broken or your child simply forgot about a minor rule, be willing to forgive your child for what they have done.
  5. Provide positive guidance to your child. A parent should be a good mentor so that a child will come to you if anything happens. By setting a good example and responding appropriately to both positive and negative behavior, your child will have a fun and safe experience using technology.
    Keep Your Child Tech Safe Step 10.jpg

EditTips

  • Create a common mail ID for game logins and other purposes, so that you can track the content being downloaded.
  • If you have to take away your child's computer or tablet for inappropriate use of the internet, confiscate any devices they have that can connect to the internet as well (e.g. cell phone, iPod touch, gaming consoles). This way, they can't use another device to connect to the internet and do the exact same thing.

EditWarnings

  • Never be too heavy-handed on restrictions. This can make your child angry with you, and strain your relationship.

EditRelated wikiHows




source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2cQXVUO

How to Remove Epoxy

Epoxy is a permanent adhesive used on many types of surfaces, from plastic to metal. Once epoxy has hardened, removing it can be tricky. Epoxy starts in a liquid state. As it is mixed, the substance temperature heats up until it starts to cool off and harden. You can remove epoxy by getting it back to a liquid, or at least gel-like, state so that you can scrape it from the surface. Removing epoxy can be accomplished relatively easily, as long as you take the proper safety precautions and are patient.

EditSteps

EditUsing Heat to Remove Epoxy

  1. Put on gloves and goggles. When heating epoxy, vapors will be produced which are not friendly to your eyes. Do not settle for wearing glasses. You need a pair of goggles that covers your eyes completely, sitting flesh against your skin, with no holes or air entry points. Similarly, you should wear rubber cloves which come down at least 3 inches from your wrist. If at all possible, find ones with elastic which will keep air from seeping in.[1]
    Remove Epoxy Step 1 Version 2.jpg
  2. Wear clothes which cover your skin. Find a pair of tight pants, and a tight fitting long-sleeve shirt. If the shirt is button-up, make sure all the buttons are secure. This is meant to protect your skin from reacting to any vapors which will arise from heating the epoxy.
    Remove Epoxy Step 2 Version 3.jpg
  3. Soak the surface in acetone. If the epoxy is attached to a wooden surface, soak the area in acetone for an hour or more before using heat to soften the epoxy. You can either place the object into acetone, or drip acetone onto the surface where the epoxy is set in. Acetone will only soak into a wooden surface.[2]
    Remove Epoxy Step 3 Version 3.jpg
    • When dealing with epoxy on plastic, marble, cement, vinyl or metal, any chemical will interact with the top of the surface, but they do not penetrate down into the layers like they do with wood.
  4. Aim a heat gun at the epoxy for several minutes. The objective is to raise the epoxy temperature to over 200 degrees, its softening point. Work the heat gun in small strokes, rather than letting it maintain at the same position for minutes at a time. If the epoxy is on a plastic or wooden surface, keep an eye on the surface so you don't warm it up too much and burn it.[3]
    Remove Epoxy Step 4 Version 3.jpg
    • Rather than using a heat gun, you can use a soldering iron. After the iron is heated, apply it directly to a specific area of the epoxy bond line. This will soften the epoxy.[4]
    • If the epoxy you are seeking to heat is located on an object, rather than the floor tiling, you can place it on a hot plate. This will accomplish the same thing as the heat gun, and is more widely available in almost every home.
  5. Heat small areas at a time. You do not want to heat the entire bond line of epoxy at once. You will never be able to keep the epoxy hot for long enough. Instead, work on segments that are about 2-3 inches in length. After you have one segment done, work on the segment right next to the first. It will be easier to scrape off with a now open edge.[5]
    Remove Epoxy Step 5 Version 3.jpg
  6. Scrape off the heated epoxy. Use a putty knife, razor or any sharp object to scrape the epoxy off the surface. You may notice that the heat did not penetrate all the way down into all of the layers of epoxy. In this case, keep reheating the area and scrape until all the epoxy has been removed.[6]
    Remove Epoxy Step 6 Version 3.jpg
    • Do not heat right after you have already heated an area. Wait a few minutes for the epoxy to cool off before you go back and reheat. Otherwise you could cause the area to catch on fire.

EditFreezing the Epoxy

  1. Wear safety gloves and goggles. You will need a pair of gloves that sits tight on the face, not letting any air in. You will also need a large pair of rubber gloves, ones that go down at least 3 inches from the wrist. This is for your own safety, so that you do not get refrigerant in your eyes, or on your skin. This is a dangerous chemical that could cause physical harm.
    Remove Epoxy Step 7.jpg
    • You might also want to consider using a simple fabric face mask, so that you do not breathe in the vapors given off by the refrigerant.[7]
  2. Open your windows and doors. This allows air to move freely and carry vapors from the refrigerant outside. If you don't open them, the fumes can build up, and make it very dangerous to breathe the air. As the airflow is moving, you should place your kids and pets in a safe room with the door closed. This will prevent them from breathing in fumes.
    Remove Epoxy Step 8.jpg
  3. Shake your can of refrigerant. Refrigerant sprays can be found in multiple brands at more hardware stores. When you purchase a can, you will want to shake it before using, just like any other spray can. Then you want to hold it about 1 foot away from the epoxy you want to spray. Make sure you are holding the can upright, otherwise the liquid will leak out.[8]
    Remove Epoxy Step 9.jpg
  4. Spray your refrigerant on the epoxy. The spray will quickly drop the temperature of anything it touches. The epoxy will freeze and turn brittle. Do NOT put your hands near the area you are spraying. Make sure that your gloves and goggles are secure before you begin spraying. If you have children or pets, do not let them near the area.[9]
    Remove Epoxy Step 10.jpg
  5. Chip away the brittle epoxy. Use a putty knife or hit the epoxy with a rubber mallet or hammer. The epoxy should be cold enough that it turns to crystals and breaks off easily. You will then want to sweep the crystals up into a dustpan, and immediately dump them into the trashcan. You can use a vacuum cleaner to make sure that you get all of the remaining microscopic crystals.[10]
    Remove Epoxy Step 11.jpg
    • Be careful not to damage your surface by putting too much pressure on the epoxy. If it doesn't break apart easily, try adding more spray cooler to chill the resin even more.

EditPreparing Chemicals to Remove Epoxy

  1. Wear goggles and safety gloves. Using chemical agents can be very dangerous to bot your eyesight and skin. You will need to buy a pair of goggles that sits flat against the face, with no holes where air can get through. You will also have to purchase a thick pair of rubber gloves, that comes down at least 3 inches from the wrist.[11]
    Remove Epoxy Step 12.jpg
  2. Open up windows and doors. This is incredibly important because you need airflow. Air will carry the harmful vapors of the chemicals towards the outside of your house. If your windows and doors remained closed, you will likely breathe in chemical agents which are hazardous to your health.[12]
    Remove Epoxy Step 13.jpg
  3. Choose a chemical which will soften epoxy. It is also critical that the chemical agent does not damage the surface on which it is stuck to. Chemicals may damage certain surfaces such as cloth, plastic or vinyl. The strong chemicals may actually eat away at surfaces before they soften the epoxy glue.[13]
    Remove Epoxy Step 14.jpg
    • Stay away from Class 3 and 4 oxidizers. These agents can cause spontaneous combustion, or can catch on fire down the road.
    • Try a paint thinner. The acetone in most paint thinners can soften up hardened epoxy, but be prepared to let the epoxy and object to which it is stuck to soak for at least an hour.
    • Use a commercial stripping agent. These are usually available at most hardware stores.[14]
  4. Apply the stripping agent. You can either drip some of the agent directly onto the epoxy, or put some on a washcloth, and dab the epoxy. Either way, make sure that enough agent makes it's way onto the epoxy. After the agent has been applied, wait at least an hour before you come back to it.[15]
    Remove Epoxy Step 15.jpg
    • Work in small steps, 2-3 inches at a time. If the area is too wide, the chemical agent will likely not work as effectively.
    • Make sure that children and pets are not around when you are applying the chemical agent.
  5. Mix a cleaning solution. After the chemical stripping agent sits for an hour, you will need to neutralize it before you scrape it off. Mix together, in a medium sized bucket, 2-3 tablespoons of trisodium phosphate and a gallon of hot water. You can either pull the mixture onto the stripping agent, or dab it on with a sponge. Let it sit, and neutralize the agent for at least 5 minutes.[16]
    Remove Epoxy Step 16.jpg
  6. Scrape the epoxy resin from the surface. You can use a putty knife, a razor, or any other sharp object. You will want to immediately place the epoxy in a paper towel, and throw it away in a trash can. The goal is to not let the chemical agents get anywhere near you. If some epoxy is still stuck to the surface, soak the remaining epoxy in the chemical for a while longer before trying to scrape it off.[17]
    Remove Epoxy Step 17.jpg
    • When you have scraped the epoxy off, wash the area down with a rag soaked in warm water and soap. You do not want the chemicals to linger around, especially with children and pets in the house.

EditVideo

EditTips

  • Apply the specific procedure two to three times. Sometimes the procedure will only work for the top layer of epoxy. Repeat trials until all of the layers are gone.
  • Ask a hardware professional for advice. Sometimes there are home remedies which work just as well at removing epoxy. Professionals will also be able to refer you to the best products out there on the market at removing epoxy.
  • Work the epoxy in small segments. Do not do the whole entire area at once. Do 2-3 inches at a time, and work from there.

EditWarnings

  • Allow for air to move freely throughout the house. You do not want to bottle up vapor from dangerous chemicals.
  • Make sure your gloves and goggles are secure. You do not want some of the fumes to make contact with skin, or your eyes.
  • Keep your pets and children in a safe place as you are applying chemicals to the epoxy.

EditThings You'll Need

  • Heat gun
  • Scraping tool
  • Refrigerant spray
  • Acetone or methylene chloride
  • Trisodium phosphate
  • Goggles
  • Large rubber gloves

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations


Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found




source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2dbvBMz

jeudi 29 septembre 2016

How to Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or other organisms that enter the body through a wide range of methods. Because these diseases are often easily passed from person to person, it is relatively easy to see a large outbreak of an illness in a single community. To protect yourself from infectious disease, the "ounce of prevention" adage does hold true. With just a few steps and some healthy habits, you can keep many germs and illnesses at bay.

EditSteps

EditPreventing Infectious Diseases

  1. Wash your hands. Proper hand hygiene is vital when it comes to preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria and fungi) are easily transferred from contaminated surfaces to your skin and from there to your eyes and mouth where they can gain access to inside your body. Thus, washing your hands is one of the first steps to take to reduce the transfer of infectious agents.[1]
    Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • Wash your hands every time after going to the bathroom, changing a diaper, sneezing or blowing your nose and when coming into contact with bodily fluids.[2]
    • Wash your hands before and after working with food.
    • When washing your hands, use soap and warm water to wet your hands up to your wrists and scrub the skin for at least 20 seconds or more.[3]
    • If water and soap is not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer and rub it from your fingertips to your wrists in order to eliminate pathogens.[4]
  2. Avoid touching your face, eyes, and nose. People tend to touch their face several times throughout the day. This is when the infectious agents in your hands gain access to your body. Where an intact skin does not allow transfer of pathogens into the body, the eyes and mucous membranes in the nose and mouth do allow this.[5]
    Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    • Besides maintaining a proper hand hygiene, try to avoid touching your face, even with clean hands.
    • Avoid direct contact between the palm of your hand and face and use a tissue when you cough or sneeze.
    • If a tissue is not available, cover your mouth or nose with your elbow. After using a tissue, discard it immediately into a proper waste receptacle and wash your hands
  3. Keep all immunizations up to date. Vaccines are a preventive measure that help prevent or lessen illness caused by infectious pathogens. They work by stimulating an immune response against a specific pathogenic agent and, if you are ever exposed to the pathogen, your immune system can fight it more effectively.[6]
    Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Get all adult and childhood immunizations on time and keep an accurate vaccination record at home for every family member to ensure everyone remains up to date.
    • Because vaccines are designed to activate your immune system to recognize specific pathogens, some vaccines may cause minor symptoms, such as fever, fatigue and muscle aches, that last a day or two.[7]
    • Some vaccinations require booster shots (such as tetanus and polio) at certain intervals to maintain immunity.[8]
  4. Stay home. When you are sick with infectious disease, it is important to limit exposing other people to the pathogen and spreading the illness. Although some infectious diseases do not spread easily from person-to-person contact, others do and thus, you should stay home when you are symptomatic.[9]
    Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases Step 4.jpg
    • If you are at public spaces, cover your mouth and nose with your elbow while coughing (and not with your hand) to avoid spreading pathogens airborne and transferring germs with your hands.
    • Wash your hands and clean shared surfaces often if you are sick in order to minimize transmission of germs.
  5. Prepare and store food safely. Some pathogens can be transferred into your body via food (so called foodborne illnesses or pathogens). Once food is consumed and the pathogen gains access to your body, it can multiply and cause illness. Thus, it is vital you prepare and store all food appropriately.[10]
    Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases Step 5.jpg
    • Prepare your food responsibly by limiting cross contamination. Raw food should never be prepared on the same surface as ready-made food to prevent transferring pathogens.
    • Clean your work surfaces regularly and keep them clean and dry. Pathogens can thrive on wet environments.
    • Wash your hands before and after handling food. You should also wash your hands when you are changing ingredients (eg, from raw food to fresh food).
    • Food should be stored at safe temperatures (refrigerated if needed) and thrown out if you doubt their quality. Changes in color and texture and strange odors are signs that your food has spoiled.
    • Hot food should be eaten when it is prepared and, if it needs to be stored, kept either hot (as in buffets) or refrigerated as soon as possible to keep pathogens from multiplying.
  6. Practice safe sex and do not share personal items. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are spread when bodily secretions come into contact with your genitals, mouth, and eyes. Practice safe sex to limit your risk of catching an STD.[11]
    Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases Step 6.jpg
    • Always protect yourself by using a condom or dental dam during sexual activity, especially if you are not in a monogamous relationship.
    • Do not engage in any sexual activity when you or your partner have a cold sore or genital wart breakout. This can lead to spreading incurable herpes.
    • Get tested for STDs before and after engaging in sexual activities with a new partner so that you are aware of your status.
  7. Travel wisely. Be aware of the risks of infection that increase when you travel. Some infections may be more common in places you are traveling versus where you live.[12]
    Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases Step 7.jpg
    • Talk to your doctor about important vaccinations to get when you are traveling. This allows you to build up your immunity and be more prepared to the native pathogens present at the areas where you are travelling to.
    • Wash your hands frequently when you are traveling to avoid transferring germs to your body via your hands.
    • Protect yourself against infections that are carrier by vectors such as mosquitos by taking precautions, such as sleeping in mosquito netting, using bug spray, and wearing long-sleeved clothing.

EditUnderstanding and Treating Infectious Diseases

  1. Understand different kinds of infectious diseases. You should be aware of the different agents that can spread infection. This can help you manage your risk factors.[13]
    Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases Step 8.jpg
    • Bacteria are the most common infectious agents. They can be transmitted via bodily fluids and food. They are single cell living microorganisms that use your body as a home base to replicate.
    • Viruses are pathogens that cannot live outside the host. When a virus enters your body, they hijack your body’s cells to multiply and spread to neighboring cells.
    • Fungi are simple, plant-like living organisms that may take up residence in your body.
    • Parasites are living organisms that hijack the host’s body and use their resources to thrive.[14]
  2. Treat bacterial infections with antibiotics. Antibiotics are medications that fight off bacterial infections. They work by disabling or killing bacterial cells and thus, fastening the elimination of bacteria by your immune system.[15]
    Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases Step 9.jpg
    • Use topical antibiotic ointments for small wounds that are infected. Signs of infection include redness, swelling, warmth and pain. Do not use antibiotic ointment for heavily bleeding wounds that are deep. Seek medical attention if you have a wound that does not stop bleeding.
    • For systemic bacterial infections, visit your healthcare provider and ask if you should be taking oral antibiotics.
    • It is important to understand that antibiotics cannot cure or treat viral infections, such as the cold or flu. Your doctor can diagnose bacterial versus viral infection and treat it appropriately.
    • Take antibiotics only as directed. Taking antibiotics when you don’t need them (such as when you have a viral infection) increases bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
  3. Treat viral infections. Viral infections cannot be treated with antibiotics but there are some antiviral medications that can be used for certain viruses. Some viral infections are treated with at home remedies (such as rest and remaining hydrated).[16]
    Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases Step 10.jpg
    • Some drugs, known as antiviral or antiretroviral drugs, can fight off certain viruses by taking away their ability to reproduce their DNA inside your cells.
    • Some viral infections, such as the common cold, only need to have their symptoms treated to make you more comfortable. Your immune system can fight off the virus as long as you are not immunocompromised and get enough rest and nutrients.
    • Many viral illnesses can be prevented with vaccinations. Thus, you should keep your immunizations up to date.
  4. Know how to treat fungal infections. Some fungal infections can be treated with medications that help eliminate the fungi and clear the infection. However, there are numerous pathogenic fungi that cause infections and only your doctor can diagnose and prescribe proper treatments.[17]
    Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases Step 11.jpg
    • Some fungal infections may be treated with a topical ointment if the infected site is on your skin (such as foot fungus).
    • Very serious and threatening fungal infections are treated with oral medications or injections.
    • Some examples of pathogenic fungi include histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis, and these infections can be deadly.
  5. Know how to treat parasitic infections. As the name implies, parasites are organisms that "hijack" your body’s resources in order to live, grow and multiply inside you. Parasites refers to a wide array of pathogenic agents from worms to microscopic cells.[18]
    Protect Yourself from Infectious Diseases Step 12.jpg
    • Many parasites can be transferred into your body via contaminated food or water (such as hookworm), while others enter via broken/compromised skin (such as malaria via mosquito bite).
    • You should never drink unfiltered or non-purified water from natural sources as the water may contain parasites.
    • Some parasitic infections can be treated with oral or injected medications.
    • Your doctor can diagnose a parasitic infection based on your symptoms and specific tests and then treat it appropriately.

EditTips

  • Maintain proper hygiene and lifestyle practices to prevent infectious diseases, including washing your hands, avoiding touching your face, and keeping your immunizations up to date.

EditWarnings

  • If you suspect you have an infectious disease, consult your doctor immediately. Several pathogenic agents can cause infectious diseases and only your doctor can diagnose and treat the condition appropriately.

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations


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