jeudi 30 novembre 2017

How to Germinate Tree Seeds

Seed germination is a necessary part of growing trees, but it can often be a long and tricky process. Tree seeds can be germinated naturally, or they can be “forced” by assisted germination. Assisted germination is helpful if you want to speed up the overall germination process. Many tree seeds have similar germination processes, but it is best to research the exact requirements for the species of tree you plan to grow.

EditSteps

EditGerminating Seeds Naturally

  1. Add stones and natural compost to a plant pot. Begin the planting process during autumn. Get a medium-sized plant pot that has drainage holes at the bottom. Layer the bottom of the pot with small stones. Only put enough stones so that you can’t see the bottom of the pot. Then, fill the pot with natural compost. Fill it up almost all the way, but leave about a of space at the top of the pot.[1]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • Natural compost is made out of decomposing organic materials, such as leaves, hay, and raw vegetables.
    • You can use store-bought compost if you do not have homemade compost.
  2. Plant the seeds. Once the pot has been filled with compost, dig out a small hole in the center of the pot. It should be about deep. Insert 2 or 3 seeds into the hole. Then, replace the compost and pat it down. After that, water the compost until it appears wet.[2]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 2 Version 2.jpg
  3. Put the pot in a shady spot. You can put the pot outside in a shady corner, or you can put it near a window that doesn’t get much light. Wherever you put it, the spot should not receive constant sunlight. Keeping the seeds at a temperature between and .[3]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 3 Version 2.jpg
  4. Protect the seeds with wire mesh if your pot is outside. This will prevent birds and animals from eating the seeds. First figure out the circumference of the top of the pot. Use wire cutters to cut the wire mesh a little larger than the measurement you took. Then, put the wire mesh on top of the pot and fold the wire mesh over the edges. Make sure that it is secure and can’t be easily removed.[4]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 4 Version 3.jpg
  5. Keep the soil damp. Check the soil daily to see if it is dry. If it is, add water to the soil. The soil should be damp but not wet.[5]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 5 Version 3.jpg
  6. Check the seeds for growth. Natural germination will take longer than assisted germination. Your seeds will likely take 2 seasons to complete the germination process. If you planted the seeds in early autumn, check their progress in early spring. They have completed germinating if you see a small sprout growing out of each seeds.[6]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 6 Version 3.jpg

EditUsing Assisted Germination

  1. Use hot water to stimulate a “fake” summer. To speed along the process of germination, you can trick the seeds into “thinking” they’ve gone through the typical dormancy and germination period. A seed may take 2 seasons to germinate naturally, but this process will speed up germination to 90 days. To begin, gather your materials to replicate the summer season. You will need:[7]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 7 Version 3.jpg
    • A container that can hold hot water and all of your seeds
    • Your seeds
    • Warm or hot (not boiling) water
  2. Place the collected seeds in your container. Then, pour the hot water over them. Make sure the seeds have been completely covered with water. At this stage, it doesn't matter whether they sink or float.[8]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 8 Version 3.jpg
  3. Wait 24 to 48 hours to dispose of any floating seeds. Floating seeds typically mean that they are empty and will not produce a seedling. You may replace the water after 24 hours with more warm water, and wait another day if you want to give them another chance to float.[9]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 9 Version 3.jpg
  4. Use your refrigerator to replicate a “fake” winter. After you’ve replicated the summer season, it is time to replicate cold weather. Prepare the following materials before you proceed:[10]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 10 Version 3.jpg
    • A plastic sandwich bag
    • Paper towel
    • Tap water
    • Refrigerator
  5. Place your seeds on the paper towel. Fold the paper towel and moisten it with water so it is wet, but not dripping. Then, insert the paper towel into the plastic sandwich bag. Make sure that the seeds don’t fall out.[11]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 11 Version 3.jpg
  6. Place the plastic sandwich bag in your refrigerator. This process is called cold stratification. Put the sandwich bag in a place where it won’t be bothered. Typically, the bottom drawer is a good spot for the sandwich bag.[12]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 12 Version 3.jpg
    • It’s a good idea to label the bag with something like “tree seeds” to avoid disturbance.
    • Don’t put the seeds into the bottom drawer if it is on a humidity control setting.
  7. Check for rotten seeds each month. To check, open the bag without letting the seeds fall out. Look at the seeds. They should be larger, but should not appear spongy. If they appear engorged and spongy, take them out of the bag. Throw them out if they feel spongy.[13]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 13 Version 3.jpg
  8. Take your seeds out of the refrigerator after three months. If you’ve left the seeds in the refrigerator, the cold stratification will be completed after 90 days. Remove them from the refrigerator to begin the final stage of the assisted germination process.[14]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 14 Version 3.jpg
  9. Put the seeds in another bag. Put the seeds in a paper towel and fold it. Then, put the paper towel in a plastic bag. Place the plastic bag in a warm location. is an ideal temperature for the seeds. Once the seeds begin to sprout, it is time to pot or plant them.[15]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 15 Version 3.jpg
    • The time it will take them to sprout depends on the type of seeds you have. Check the progress of the seeds once a week.

EditPlanting the Seedlings

  1. Make sure the seeds have germinated before planting. The seeds should have produced sprouts before repotting them or planting them. And to sprout, the seeds need to go through the process of germination. You can use natural or assisted germination to complete the process.
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 16 Version 3.jpg
  2. Repot or plant the seedlings in the spring. Seedlings should begin to appear around springtime. If they have grown significantly, you can repot them or plant them outside. Keep in mind that seedlings are often targeted by weeds and animals, so it is typically better to protect them inside for about a year.[16]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 17 Version 3.jpg
    • Use a potting soil that release nutrients slowly.
  3. Nurse the seedlings indoors until they are tall. If you choose to protect the seedlings until they grow larger, keep the seedlings inside in a sunny area. Keep the seedling inside for about a year, until they reach tall. Keep the soil damp during this time.[17]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 18.jpg
    • You may need to water the soil daily if it does not stay damp.
  4. Expose the seedlings gradually to the outside. Because the seedlings have mostly or only grown indoors, slowly begin to expose them to the outside after a year. The best time to begin exposure is during early spring. Ideally, put the pot in a place with dappled sunlight. Start by putting the seedlings outside for 2 hours during the day. Then, increase the daily outside time by an hour each day. After a few days, permanently move the seedlings outside.[18]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 19.jpg
  5. Plant the seedlings. If the tree won’t grow very large, it’s okay to keep it in a pot. For most trees, it will be necessary to plant them in the ground. Find a clear location with plenty of sunlight. Dig a hole that is at least an inch deep, depending on the size of the seedlings. Plant the seedlings and cover the hole back up with soil. Plant the seedlings at least apart if you are planting multiple trees.[19]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 20.jpg
    • Rake the area so that it is clear before planting the seedlings.
  6. Watch the progress of your trees. Trees take years to grow, and they will continue to grow in some way or another throughout their lifespans. Watch your tree carefully while it is a sapling. Keep it watered, and protect it from animals if necessary.[20]
    Germinate Tree Seeds Step 21.jpg
    • You can put a mesh fence around the tree to protect it.

EditTips

  • To protect a sapling from pests, put a bamboo cane into the ground next to the tree. Take an empty liter bottle of soda, and cut the neck and base off of it. Place the bottle onto the bamboo and over the sapling.[21]
  • If you are germinating a seed that is a berry or from a fruit, you should (if possible) remove the fruit or dry it out as it will later cause your tree to rot.

EditWarnings

  • If you are using the natural method, your tree will likely not grow as well if you don’t plant the seeds in the fall.
  • Watch for weeds and pests while the tree is still very small.

EditThings You'll Need

  • Tree seed
  • Plant pot
  • Small stones
  • Compost
  • Wire mesh
  • Paper Towel
  • Container big enough for your seeds
  • Refrigerator

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2Aufp2j

How to Razor Cut Short Hair

Razor cutting is a versatile technique. You can use it to cut your hair shorter, add texture, or soften the ends. If done incorrectly, however, you could damage your hair. Fortunately, razor cutting is easy, and once you get the technique down, it can be really effective.[1]

EditSteps

EditTrimming, Shaping, and Texturing Short Hair

  1. Start with short hair that is a few inches/centimeters long. This method is great if you already have short hair but want to trim it shorter. It will also help add texture to your hair while reducing volume. It would be easiest if your hair is the same length all around. If your hair is very long, cut it so that it is a few inches/centimeters long.[2]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 1.jpg
    • This method assumes that you are cutting someone else's hair, but you use it to cut your own hair. You may have to adjust the hand positions so be more comfortable.
  2. Make sure that your hair is dry, unless it is curly. If your is curly, wavy, or natural (i.e.: African textured), you should dampen it with water first. Cutting curly hair while it is dry can cause frizz and split ends. Dampening it with water will help prevent this from happening.[3]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 2.jpg
  3. Pinch a strand of hair from the top of the head between your fingers. Make a V shape with your index and middle fingers. Pinch a thin of hair between them, with your palm facing outward. Pull the hair up and away from the top of the head until you reach the ends. Hold it at a 90-degree angle to the top of the head.[4]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 3.jpg
    • The thin strand of hair should be a little narrower than the length of your index finger.
    • Keep this first section perpendicular to the front hairline, where the center part would be.
  4. Cut into the hair with a straight-back razor. Position the razor right below your fingers. Make short, upward cuts towards your fingers. As you cut, the hair will fall away from your fingers.[5]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 4.jpg
    • Use a straight-back-razor with guard teeth for this. It is different from a razor comb in that the teeth are made from metal and are much shorter.
  5. Continue to work in horizontal rows towards the back of the crown. Keep pinching and cutting strands of hair all along the front hairline, spanning from temple-to-temple. Once you finish cutting the hair along the hairline, create another row just behind the first one. Continue working your way towards the back of the crown, right where the head starts to curve downward.
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 5.jpg
  6. Angle your fingers to cut the hair shorter in the back. Pinch a strand of hair on the back-center of the head between your index and middle fingers. Angle your fingers so that the hair on the top edge of the strand touches the base of your fingers, and the hair on the bottom edge sticks out between your fingertips. Trim away the hair under your fingers with the razor.[6]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 6.jpg
    • The angle depends on how short you want the back and sides to be. Try to match the angle to the curve of the client's head, however.
    • Keep your palm facing outward, and the top of your hand facing the client's head.
    • Work your way in vertical rows down the back of the client's head, from top to bottom.
  7. Angle your fingers to cut and blend the hair on the sides. Pinch strands of hair between your index and middle fingers like before. Angle your fingers so that the hair on the top of the strand matches up with the hair on the top of the head. Work your way along the side of the head towards the back of the head.[7]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 7.jpg
    • Always trim the hair beneath your fingers.
    • Make sure that the hair on the sides tapers towards the hair on the back. Trim away any excess length, if needed.
  8. Trim and texture the bangs, if desired. Comb the hair forward with a soft, bristle brush. Pinch and twist thin sections of hair, then run your razor comb lightly along the strands. This will shorten them while giving them a soft, feathered texture.[8]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 8.jpg
  9. Add texture by lightly running your razor comb over the hair. Use a regular comb to brush the client's hair in the direction they will normally wear it. Use your straight-back razor comb to lightly brush the hair down. Be careful not to dig too deep into the hair, or you will cut too much off.[9]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 9.jpg
    • Start with the top of the head, then work your way down the sides and back.
  10. Contour the hair along the ears, nape, and sideburns, if needed. If the client's hair is cut short enough that you can see the entire ear, you will need to contour it. Use your fingertips to pinch and pull away thin strands of hair, then lightly trim them with a razor. Work your way along the hairline until the hair is even.[10]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 10.jpg
    • When you reach the ears, fold them down so that you can see the hairline behind them.
  11. Brush and style the hair. Use a soft brush to dust off any short strands of hair along the client's neck and shoulders.
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 11.jpg

EditTrimming and Shaping Pixies and Undercuts

  1. Start a pixie or an undercut. This method is also suitable for other hairstyles that have a similar length and style (longer on top and shorter on the sides). It is ideal for trimming your haircut while maintaining the shape and style. It can save you a costly visit to the stylist.
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 12.jpg
  2. Dampen your hair if it is curly. While razor cutting should be typically done on dry hair, just the opposite is true for curly, wavy, and natural (African) textured hair. Cutting this type of hair while it is dry and damage it. Dampening it with water first will help prevent split ends and frizz.[11]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 13.jpg
    • If your hair is straight, you should leave it dry.
  3. Get a razor comb that has both long and short teeth. Most razor combs will only have one set of teeth. You need to get a razor comb that has long teeth on one edge, and short teeth on the other. This will give you better control of how much hair you cut off. The comb can have straight teeth or curved/concave teeth.[12]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 14.jpg
    • If the comb has curved and concave teeth, the curved side will cut less hair while the concave side will cut more hair.[13]
  4. Section off the hair on top of your head. This is only necessary if you are trimming an undercut or a pixie that is shorter on the sides/back and longer on top. Use the handle of a rat-tail comb to separate the long (top) hair from the short (side and back) hair. Comb the short hair down and secure the long hair on the top of your head with hair clips.[14]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 15.jpg
    • For most people, this top section spans the width of the forehead.
  5. Run the comb down the sides and back using short, downward strokes. Run the comb through your hair, just like you would when brushing it. Give it a gentle, downward flick at the end of each stroke. Use the long/curved edge if you need to trim off less hair, and the short/concave if you need to trim off more hair.
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 16.jpg
    • Which edge you use depends on how long your hair is to begin with, and how short you want it to be at the end. You will most likely have to alternate between the two edges.
  6. Trim the hair around your ears with small scissors. Pixies and undercuts are neatly trimmed around the ears. Because of how small this area is, the best way to get the cleanest line is to trim the hair by hand with small hairdressing scissors. Use small snips to cut away any long strands and to clean up the lines.[15]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 17.jpg
    • Depending on your haircut, you may also have to do this along the hairline, temples, and nape.
    • Comb the hair downward using a fine-toothed comb first so that it is nice and straight.
  7. Remove the clips and trim the long hair on top of your head, if needed. The great thing about pixies and undercuts is that there is no set or specific length for the hair on the top of your head; it just needs to be longer than the hair on the sides and back of your hair. You can leave this hair long if it suits your style, or you can also trim it down further.[16]
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 18.jpg
    • Click here for more detailed information on trimming the hair on the top of your head.
  8. Comb and style your hair. If you need to, take a shower and change into a set of fresh clothes. This will ensure that you have no annoying little bits of cut hair pricking your skin.
    Razor Cut Short Hair Step 19.jpg


EditTips

  • Drape a hairdressing cape or a towel around your shoulders while cutting your hair. This will keep those tiny bits of hair from sticking to your clothes.
  • Cut your hair longer than you think you want it. Remember, you can always cut it shorter, but you’ll have to wait for it to grow back longer!
  • If you are cutting your own hair, consider getting a three-way mirror. This way, you won’t have to turn your back to the mirror and hold another mirror up in front of your face.
  • Use a fresh blade each time your razor cut your hair. If you don't use a fresh blade, it won't be sharp enough. This can lead to split ends.[17]
  • Curly hair is difficult to razor cut. To reduce frizz and split ends, make sure that you cut with the curl, not against it.
  • Cutting curly hair may still lead to frizz, even if you cut with the curl. You can get it under control with styling and smoothing creams, however.


EditWarnings

  • Razor cutting may damage curly hair, especially if it is delicate, like African, ethnic, or natural hair.
  • Do not razor cut curly hair (including African, natural, and ethnic) while it is dry, or you will get split ends.[18]

EditThings You'll Need

EditTrimming, Shaping, and Texturing Short Hair

  • Straight-back razor
  • Fine-toothed comb
  • Soft, bristle brush
  • Spray bottle (for dampening curly hair)

EditTrimming and Shaping Pixies and Undercuts

  • Razor comb with short and long teeth
  • Hair clips
  • Fine-toothed comb
  • Spray bottle (for dampening curly hair)


EditSources and Citations


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source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2iqF6xr

How to Make an Advent Calendar

Advent calendars are a fun way to get in the Christmas spirit. Each day you get a little closer to Christmas, and you get a small gift. There are a lot of creative calendars on the market, but there's nothing quite like making your own. Make a simple calendar using household items, or pick up a few special materials to make a more elaborate one.

EditSteps

EditMaking an Advent Calendar Out of Toilet Paper Rolls

  1. Gather your supplies. To make an advent calendar out of toilet paper rolls, start setting aside empty rolls ahead of time. It may take you a while to save enough to make the calendar. You will need the following materials:[1]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 1 Version 3.jpg
    • 25-31 empty toilet paper rolls
    • A large piece of cardboard
    • A glue stick
    • Multipurpose glue
    • Scissors
    • Brown paper
    • Markers or crayons
  2. Draw the numbers. Decide if you want to make your calendar for the entire month of December, or just until Christmas Day. Draw numbers on the brown paper for each day on your calendar.[2]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 2 Version 3.jpg
    • Make sure the numbers are small enough to fit over the opening of the empty toilet paper rolls. Leave some space between each number so it is easier to cut them out.[3]
    • Once you have drawn all your numbers, cut them out. Cut them out in squares, leaving yourself enough room to glue them onto the empty rolls.
    • If you don't want to draw the numbers on, print out some numbers from your computer. Open your word processor an find a font you like. Type out your numbers and size them to fit your empty rolls. Print the numbers onto brown paper, and cut them out.[4]
  3. Glue your numbers to the empty rolls. Use the glue stick to glue each number to the opening of an empty roll. Cut off any excess paper.[5]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 3 Version 3.jpg
  4. Fill the empty rolls with small gifts. Buy or make enough small gifts for each day on the calendar. Get creative with your gifts.[6]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 4 Version 3.jpg
    • Not every gift has to be an item. Make some of the gifts certificates good for a home-cooked dinner, or a back rub.[7]
    • Keep the gifts light so that they don't weigh down the rolls.[8]
  5. Make a base. Find a large piece of cardboard. Assemble your rolls in order on the cardboard. Make sure you can fit them all comfortably.[9]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 5 Version 3.jpg
    • You can align the rolls close together in rows and columns, or space them out along the board. If you space them out along the board, you can add decorations to the cardboard.
  6. Glue each roll down to the cardboard base. Keeping the gifts inside the rolls, place the rolls back onto the base. Once you have the rolls how you like them, glue each one down to the base.[10]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 6 Version 3.jpg
  7. Decorate your calendar. Add holiday decorations to the background of your advent calendar. Decorate the rolls as well. See if you can come up with a theme for your calendar.[11]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 7 Version 3.jpg
    • Use the layout of the rolls to help you come up with fun design for your calendar.
  8. Mount the calendar on a wall. Hang the calendar on a wall using some twine. Punch holes in the top two corners of your calendar. Take a long piece of twine and tie an end through one of the corners. Tie the other end through the opposite corner. You can hang your calendar wherever you like.[12]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 8 Version 3.jpg

EditMaking a Matchbox Advent Calendar

  1. Gather your supplies. You need a few special materials to make a matchbook advent calendar. Craft matchboxes come in various sizes, so feel free to mix and match. Washi tape is a type of decorative masking tape. You can find these supplies online, or at your local craft store: [13]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 9 Version 3.jpg
    • Enough matchbooks to make 25-31 days
    • Patterned paper
    • Washi tape
    • Stickers
    • Ribbon
    • Craft glue
    • Decorative trinkets
    • Markers and paints
  2. Decorate the boxes. Decide how many calendar days you want to include in your advent calendar. Lay out the appropriate number of matchboxes.[14]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 10 Version 3.jpg
    • Remove the drawer from each matchbox so that you're only decorating the shell. Use a combination of ribbons, washi tape, and decorative paper to decorate each shell.[15]
    • Decorate the front of the drawers to match the shells. You don't have to use identical patterns for the drawers and shells, but make sure they complement each other.[16]
  3. Add numbers to the drawers. Use paints or markers to add numbers to the front of the drawers. Or, if you prefer, cut out some numbers from the scraps of your decorative paper and glue them to the drawers.[17]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 11 Version 3.jpg
    • Feel free to mix and match techniques when making the numbers. Your advent calendar should be a reflection of your creativity.
  4. Fill the matchboxes with gifts. Once you've decorated every matchbox, fill them with tiny gifts such as candy, money, or small toys. Get creative with your gift ideas![18]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 12 Version 3.jpg
    • You can also make personalized certificates to put in the matchboxes. If you're making one for your mom or dad, put a certificate that says you'll do a chore. If you're making one for your boyfriend or girlfriend, make a certificate good for a romantic dinner.
  5. Arrange the matchboxes into a tree. Stack the matchboxes until you've made the shape of a Christmas tree. Once you're happy with the shape, glue the boxes to each other. Make sure all the drawers are facing the same direction.[19]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 13 Version 3.jpg
    • Place the calendar on a table or counter top, or thread some ribbon through the top box and hang it on the wall.[20]

EditMaking an Advent Jar

  1. Gather your supplies. In this twist on the classic advent calendar, each day is stuffed into a jar. To find the gift you have to pull the day out of the jar, and read the clue. Save a jar from your kitchen for this project. Gather the following materials:[21]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 14 Version 3.jpg
    • An empty jar
    • Felt balls
    • Decorative paper
    • Pens or markers
    • Paints
  2. Decorate the jar. Use paints and decorative paper to decorate your jar. Make sure you thoroughly wash your jar if you're saving it from your kitchen. Clean any labeling off the outside, and rinse any remaining food from the inside.
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 15 Version 3.jpg
  3. Cut out strips of paper. Cut enough pieces of paper for each day in your calendar.[22]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 16 Version 3.jpg
    • Write a message on each strip of paper. Your messages can be activities, such as "go to the movies," or you can leave clues for gifts hidden in the house.[23]
  4. Glue felt balls to each piece of paper. The felt balls will make it easier to pull the messages out. After you glue the balls on to the paper, fold the paper to hide the message. Write the numbers on the outside of the paper strip for easy searching.[24]
    Make an Advent Calendar Step 17 Version 3.jpg
    • Toss the messages in the jar and screw on the lid. Each day find the appropriate date, and see what your gift is![25]

EditTips

  • Turn your old Christmas cards into decorations for your calendars. You can also use wrapping paper and bows. Add as much or as little decoration as you like.
  • Get creative with your advent calendars!

EditVideo

EditSources and Citations


Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found




source How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2AmXnm1

How to Deal with a Narcissistic Friend

Dealing with a friend who's a narcissist can be a difficult, frustrating situation. There are two types of narcissists, those who are ma...